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Employer-to-employer flows in the United States: estimates using linked employer-employee data

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  • Melissa Bjelland
  • Bruce Fallick
  • John Haltiwanger
  • Erika McEntarfer

Abstract

We use administrative data linking workers and firms to study employer-to-employer flows. After discussing how to identify such flows in quarterly data, we investigate their basic empirical patterns. We find that the pace of employer-to-employer flows is high, representing about 4 percent of employment and 30 percent of separations each quarter. The pace of employer-to-employer flows is highly procyclical, and varies systematically across worker, job and employer characteristics. Our findings regarding job tenure and earnings dynamics suggest that for those workers moving directly to new jobs, the new jobs are generally better jobs; however, this pattern is highly procyclical. There are rich patterns in terms of origin and destination of industries. We find somewhat surprisingly that more than half of the workers making employer-to-employer transitions switch even broadly-defined industries (NAICS super-sectors).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2007-30.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2007-30

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Keywords: Labor mobility ; Labor supply;

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References

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  1. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 1995. "Job Flows, Worker Flows and Churning," CEPR Discussion Papers 1125, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Jacobson, Louis S & LaLonde, Robert J & Sullivan, Daniel G, 1993. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 685-709, September.
  3. John M. Abowd & Bryce E. Stephens & Lars Vilhuber & Fredrik Andersson & Kevin L. McKinney & Marc Roemer & Simon Woodcock, 2009. "The LEHD Infrastructure Files and the Creation of the Quarterly Workforce Indicators," NBER Chapters, in: Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data, pages 149-230 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. John M. Abowd & John C. Haltiwanger & Julia I. Lane, 2004. "Integrated Longitudinal Employee-Employer Data for the United States," Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Technical Papers 2004-02, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. Steven J. Davis & R. Jason Faberman & John Haltiwanger, 2006. "The Flow Approach to Labor Markets: New Data Sources and Micro-Macro Links," NBER Working Papers 12167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Bruce Fallick & Charles A. Fleischman, 2004. "Employer-to-employer flows in the U.S. labor market: the complete picture of gross worker flows," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Bruce C. Fallick & Charles A. Fleischman, 2001. "The importance of employer-to-employer flows in the U.S. labor market," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Catherine Armington & Alicia Robb & Zoltan J Acs, 1999. "Measures Of Job Flow Dynamics In The U.S.," Working Papers 99-1, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  9. Amos Golan & Julia I. Lane & Erika McEntarfer, 2005. "The Dynamics of Worker Reallocation Within and Across Industries," Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Technical Papers 2005-02, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  10. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Martins, Pedro S., 2008. "Paying More to Hire the Best? Foreign Firms, Wages and Worker Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 3607, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Paige Ouimet & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2013. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-75, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Toshihiko Mukoyama, 2013. "The cyclicality of job-to-job transitions and its implications for aggregate productivity," International Finance Discussion Papers 1074, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Bachmann, Ronald & David, Peggy, 2010. "The Importance of Two-Sided Heterogeneity for the Cyclicality of Labour Market Dynamics," IZA Discussion Papers 5358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Pedro S. Martins & Gary Solon & Jonathan P. Thomas, 2012. "Measuring What Employers Do about Entry Wages over the Business Cycle: A New Approach," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 36-55, October.
  6. Ian M. Schmutte, 2011. "Job Referral Networks and the Determination of Earnings in Local Labor Markets," 2011 Meeting Papers 536, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Bruce Fallick & John Haltiwanger & Erika McEntarfer, 2012. "Job-to-job flows and the consequences of job separations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-73, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Ouimet, Paige & Zarutskie, Rebecca, 2014. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(3), pages 386-407.
  9. Fariha Kamal & C.J. Krizan, 2012. "Decomposing Aggregate Trade Flows: New Evidence from U.S. Traders," Working Papers 12-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  10. Hyatt, Henry R. & Spletzer, James R., 2013. "The Recent Decline in Employment Dynamics," IZA Discussion Papers 7231, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Mary C. Daly & Bart Hobijn & Aysegül Sahin & Robert G. Valletta, 2012. "A Search and Matching Approach to Labor Markets: Did the Natural Rate of Unemployment Rise?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 3-26, Summer.
  12. Stüber, Heiko, 2012. "Are real entry wages rigid over the business cycle? : Empirical evidence for Germany from 1977 to 2009," IAB Discussion Paper 201206, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  13. Freedman, Matthew L., 2008. "Job hopping, earnings dynamics, and industrial agglomeration in the software publishing industry," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 590-600, November.
  14. Suverato, Davide, 2014. "Export and the Labor Market: a Dynamic Model with on-the-job Search," Discussion Papers in Economics 20919, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  15. Fei Li, 2013. "Efficient Learning and Job Turnover in the Labor Market," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-023, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  16. Tsou, Meng-Wen & Liu, Jin-Tan & Hammitt, James K. & Chang, Ching-Fu, 2013. "The impact of foreign direct investment in China on employment adjustments in Taiwan: Evidence from matched employer–employee data," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 68-79.

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