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Declining required reserves, funds rate volatility, and open market operations

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  • Selva Demiralp & Dennis Farley

Abstract

The standard view of the monetary transmission mechanism rests on the central bank's ability to manipulate the overnight interest rate by controlling the reserve supply. In the 1990s, there was a significant decline in the level of reserve balances in the U.S. accompanied at first by an increase in the funds rate volatility. However, following this initial rise, volatility declined. In this paper, we find evidence of a structural break in volatility. We then estimate a tobit model of the major types of temporary open market operations and conclude that there have been changes in the Desk's reaction function that played a major role in controlling volatility.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2003-27.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2003-27

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Keywords: Open market operations ; Bank reserves;

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References

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  1. Ken B. Cyree & Mark D. Griffiths & Drew B. Winters, 2003. "On the pervasive effects of Federal Reserve settlement regulations," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 27-46.
  2. Feinman, Joshua N, 1993. "Estimating the Open Market Desk's Daily Reaction Function," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(2), pages 231-47, May.
  3. Alessandro Prati & Giuseppe Bertola & Leonardo Bartolini, 2000. "Day-To-Day Monetary Policy and the Volatility of the Federal Funds Interest Rate," IMF Working Papers 00/206, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Hamilton, James D, 1996. "The Daily Market for Federal Funds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 26-56, February.
  5. Griffiths, Mark D. & Winters, Drew B., 1995. "Day-of-the-week effects in federal funds rates: Further empirical findings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1265-1284, October.
  6. Cheryl L. Edwards, 1997. "Open market operations in the 1990s," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 859-874.
  7. Selva Demiralp & Oscar Jorda, . "The Announcement Effect: Evidence from Open Market Desk Data," Department of Economics 01-04, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  8. Selva Demiralp & Òscar Jordà, 2001. "The Pavlovian response of term rates to Fed announcements," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-10, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Gordon H. Sellon, Jr. & Stuart E. Weiner, 1996. "Monetary policy without reserve requirements: analytical issues," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 5-24.
  10. Selva Demiralp & Brian Preslopsky & William Whitesell, 2004. "Overnight interbank loan markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Seth Carpenter & Selva Demiralp, 2004. "The liquidity effect in the federal funds market: evidence from daily open market operations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-61, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  12. Gordon Sellon, Jr. & Stuart E. Weiner, 1997. "Monetary policy without reserve requirements : case studies and options for the United States," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 5-30.
  13. Spindt, Paul A. & Hoffmeister, J. Ronald, 1988. "The Micromechanics of the Federal Funds Market: Implications for Day-of-the-Week Effects in Funds Rate Variability," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(04), pages 401-416, December.
  14. Furfine, Craig H., 2000. "Interbank payments and the daily federal funds rate," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 535-553, October.
  15. James A. Clouse & Douglas W. Elmendorf, 1997. "Declining required reserves and the volatility of the federal funds rate," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. George Monokroussos, 2006. "A Dynamic Tobit Model for the Open Market Desk's Daily Reaction Function," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 390, Society for Computational Economics.
  2. Selva Demiralp & Brian Preslopsky & William Whitesell, 2004. "Overnight interbank loan markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. George Monokroussos, 2009. "A Classical MCMC Approach to the Estimation of Limited Dependent Variable Models of Time Series," Discussion Papers 09-07, University at Albany, SUNY, Department of Economics.
  4. Wilhelmsen, Bjørn-Roger & Zaghini, Andrea, 2005. "Monetary policy predictability in the euro area: an international comparison," Working Paper Series 0504, European Central Bank.
  5. Selva Demiralp & Erhan Artuç, 2007. "Discount Window Borrowing after 2003: The Explicit Reduction in Implicit Costs," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 0708, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  6. Seth B. Carpenter & Selva Demiralp, 2011. "Volatility, money market rates, and the transmission of monetary policy," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-22, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Dutkowsky, Donald H. & VanHoose, David D., 2011. "Interest on bank reserves and optimal sweeping," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2491-2497, September.
  8. Hafedh Bouakez & Badye Omar Essid & Michel Normandin, 2010. "Stock Returns and Monetary Policy: Are There Any Ties ?," Cahiers de recherche 1026, CIRPEE.
  9. Daniel L. Thornton, 2005. "Open market operations and the federal funds rate," Working Papers 2005-063, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  10. Nautz, Dieter & Schmidt, Sandra, 2009. "Monetary policy implementation and the federal funds rate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1274-1284, July.
  11. Klee, Elizabeth, 2010. "Operational outages and aggregate uncertainty in the federal funds market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2386-2402, October.
  12. Carpenter, Seth & Demiralp, Selva, 2006. "The Liquidity Effect in the Federal Funds Market: Evidence from Daily Open Market Operations," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(4), pages 901-920, June.

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