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Derivatives and corporate risk management: participation and volume decisions in the insurance industry

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  • J. David Cummins
  • Richard D. Phillips
  • Stephen D. Smith

Abstract

In this paper we formulate and test a number of hypotheses regarding insurer participation and volume decisions in derivatives markets. Several specific hypotheses are supported by our analysis. We find evidence consistent with the idea that insurers are motivated to use financial derivatives to hedge the costs of financial distress, interest rate, liquidity, and exchange rate risks. We also find some evidence that insurers use these instruments to hedge embedded options and manage their tax bills. We also find evidence of significant economies of scale in the use of derivatives. Interestingly, we often find that the predetermined variables we employ display opposite signs in the participation and volume regressions. We argue that this result is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that there is also a per unit premium associated with hedging and that, conditional on having risk exposures large enough to warrant participation, firms with a larger appetite for risk will be less willing than average to pay this marginal cost.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 97-12.

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Date of creation: 1997
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:97-12

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Keywords: Corporations - Finance ; Derivative securities ; Financial services industry ; Business enterprises;

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References

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  1. Gregor Andrade & Steven N. Kaplan, 1997. "How Costly is Financial (not Economic) Distress? Evidence from Highly Leveraged Transactions that Became Distressed," NBER Working Papers 6145, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Cummins, J. David & Harrington, Scott E. & Klein, Robert, 1995. "Insolvency experience, risk-based capital, and prompt corrective action in property-liability insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 511-527, June.
  3. J. David Cummins & Richard Phillips & Stephen D. Smith, 1996. "Corporate Hedging in the Insurance Industry: The Use of Financial Derivatives by U.S. Insurers," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-26, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  4. Catherine Schrand & Haluk Unal, 1998. "Hedging and Coordinated Risk Management: Evidence from Thrift Conversions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(3), pages 979-1013, 06.
  5. Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-44, September.
  6. DeMarzo, Peter M & Duffie, Darrell, 1995. "Corporate Incentives for Hedging and Hedge Accounting," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 743-71.
  7. Brewer III, Elijah & Minton, Bernadette A. & Moser, James T., 2000. "Interest-rate derivatives and bank lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 353-379, March.
  8. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1990. "On the Corporate Demand for Insurance: Evidence from the Reinsurance Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages 19-40, January.
  9. Mian, Shehzad L., 1996. "Evidence on Corporate Hedging Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(03), pages 419-439, September.
  10. Jeffery W. Gunther & Thomas F. Seims, 1995. "The likelihood and extent of bank participation in derivatives activities," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 95-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  11. Cummins, J. David & Grace, Elizabeth, 1994. "Tax management and investment strategies of property-liability insurers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 43-72, January.
  12. Venkatachalam, Mohan, 1996. "Value-relevance of banks' derivatives disclosures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 327-355, October.
  13. René M. Stulz, 1996. "Rethinking Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(3), pages 8-25.
  14. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1991. "The structure, conduct, and regulation of the property-liability insurance industry," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 35, pages 117-164.
  15. David Cummins, J. & Sommer, David W., 1996. "Capital and risk in property-liability insurance markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1069-1092, July.
  16. Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Elijah Brewer & William E. Jackson & James T. Moser, 1996. "Alligators in the swamp: the impact of derivatives on the financial performance of depository institutions," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Aug, pages 482-501.
  18. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1988. "Ownership Structure across Lines of Property-Casualty Insurance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 351-78, October.
  19. Tufano, Peter, 1996. " Who Manages Risk? An Empirical Examination of Risk Management Practices in the Gold Mining Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1097-1137, September.
  20. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
  21. David F. Babbel & Anthony M. Santomero, 1997. "Risk Management by Insurers: An Analysis of the Process," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-16, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  22. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
  23. Stulz, ReneM., 1990. "Managerial discretion and optimal financing policies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 3-27, July.
  24. J. David Cummins & Scott E. Harrington & Robert Klein, 1995. "nsolvency Experience, Risk-Based Capital, and Prompt Corrective Action in Property-Liability Insurance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-06, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. J. Cummins & Georges Dionne & Robert Gagné & A. Nouira, 2009. "Efficiency of insurance firms with endogenous risk management and financial intermediation activities," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 145-159, October.
  2. Benjamin Lorent, 2008. "Raisons Fondamentales d’une Régulation Prudentielle du Secteur des Assurances," Working Papers CEB 08-020.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Selim Mankaï & Aymen Belgacem, 2013. "Interactions Between Risk-Taking, Capital, and Reinsurance for Property-Liability Insurance Firms," EconomiX Working Papers 2013-23, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
  4. Gatzert, Nadine, 2008. "Asset management and surplus distribution strategies in life insurance: An examination with respect to risk pricing and risk measurement," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 839-849, April.
  5. Kenneth A. Froot, 2007. "Risk Management, Capital Budgeting, and Capital Structure Policy for Insurers and Reinsurers," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 74(2), pages 273-299.
  6. Danijela Miloš Sprcic, 2007. "The Derivatives as Financial Risk Management Instruments: The Case of Croatian and Slovenian Non-financial Companies," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 31(4), pages 395-420.
  7. Frank H. Bezzina & Simon Grima, 2012. "Exploring factors affecting the proper use of derivatives: An empirical study with active users and controllers of derivatives," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 414-435, March.
  8. Fernando Rubio, 2004. "Eficiencia Simple Del Mercado De Renta Fija En Chile," Finance 0405009, EconWPA.
  9. Joy Jia & Mike Adams & Mike Buckle, 2012. "Insurance and ownership structure in India’s corporate sector," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 129-149, March.

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