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Business Subsidies and Employment of Firms: Overall Evaluation and Regional Extension

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  • Takis Venetoklis
  • Aki Kangasharju

Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of business subsidies on the employment of firms in Finland, and explores possible regional differences in the effects. Employment of some 26,000 firms is followed annually between 1995-1998. We find that labour subsidies increase the firms' own employment payroll on average by 11 per cent. The marginal effect of subsidies however, is about 34 per cent. As firms pay, on average, 60 per cent of the employment payroll of a worker in a subsidised job, our results suggest that labour subsidies displace the firms' own employment expenditures. Moreover, the regional analysis indicates that the displacement effect has been milder in the Helsinki region than elsewhere, contributing to the divergence of regional economies. As an exception to the rule however, in some peripheral areas displacement has also been low. Finally, we do not find displacement or stimulation effects in the application of (i) Investment and Operation subsidies or (ii) R&D subsidies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT) in its series Discussion Papers with number 268.

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Date of creation: 11 Mar 2002
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Handle: RePEc:fer:dpaper:268

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Related research

Keywords: Evaluation; Employment; Business subsidies; Regions;

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References

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  1. Roper, Stephen & Hewitt-Dundas, Nola, 2001. "Grant Assistance and Small Firm Development in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(1), pages 99-117, February.
  2. repec:fth:iniesr:432 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd, 2000. "Why do governments subsidise investment and not employment?," Munich Reprints in Economics 20295, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. John P Martin, 1998. "What Works Among Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence from OECD Countries' Experiences," RBA Annual Conference Volume, in: Guy Debelle & Jeff Borland (ed.), Unemployment and the Australian Labour Market Reserve Bank of Australia.
  5. Begg, David & Portes, Richard, 1992. "Eastern Germany Since Unification: Wage Subsidies Remain a Better Way," CEPR Discussion Papers 730, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Dunne, Paul & Hughes, Alan, 1994. "Age, Size, Growth and Survival: UK Companies in the 1980s," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 115-40, June.
  7. Lach, Saul, 2002. "Do R&D Subsidies Stimulate or Displace Private R&D? Evidence from Israel," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 369-90, December.
  8. George A. Akerlof & Andrew K. Rose & Janet L. Yellen & Helga Hessenius, 1991. "East Germany in from the Cold: The Economic Aftermath of Currency Union," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 1-106.
  9. Tor Jakob Klette & Jarle Møen & Zvi Griliches, 1999. "Do Subsidies to Commercial R&D Reduce Market Failures? Microeconomic Evaluation Studies," NBER Working Papers 6947, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Branstetter, Lee & Sakakibara, Mariko, 1998. "Japanese Research Consortia: A Microeconometric Analysis of Industrial Policy," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 207-33, June.
  11. Evans, David S, 1987. "The Relationship between Firm Growth, Size, and Age: Estimates for 100 Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 567-81, June.
  12. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd, 2000. "Why do governments subsidise investment and not employment?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1-2), pages 171-192, October.
  13. Takis Venetoklis, 1999. "Process Evaluation of Business Subsidies in Finland. A Quantitative Approach," Research Reports 58, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  14. Payne, A. Abigail, 1998. "Does the government crowd-out private donations? New evidence from a sample of non-profit firms," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 323-345, September.
  15. Klette, Tor Jakob & Møen, Jarle, 2011. "R&D investment responses to R&D subsidies: A theoretical analysis and a microeconometric study," Discussion Papers 2011/15, Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics.
  16. Heckman, James, 2001. "Accounting for Heterogeneity, Diversity and General Equilibrium in Evaluating Social Programmes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(475), pages F654-99, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Heli Koski & Mika Pajarinen, 2012. "Do Business Subsidies Facilitate Employment Growth?," DRUID Working Papers 12-02, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
  2. Christian Hohendanner, 2011. "Ein-Euro-Jobs und regulaere Beschaeftigung," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 231(2), pages 210-246, April.
  3. Takis Venetoklis, 2002. "Public Policy Evaluation: Introduction to Quantitative Methodologies," Research Reports 90, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  4. Heli Koski & Mika Pajarinen, 2013. "The role of business subsidies in job creation of start-ups, gazelles and incumbents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 195-214, June.
  5. Takis Venetoklis, 2004. "An Evaluation of Wage Subsidy Programs to SMEs Utilising Propensity Score Matching," Research Reports 106, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).

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