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Spend and Tax or Tax and Spend? Panel Data Evidence from Finnish Municipalities during 1985 - 1999

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  • Antti Moisio

Abstract

This paper studies the dynamic interrelationship between total expenditures, own source revenues, grants received from state and loans in Finnish municipalities. Two separate panel data sets that cover the years 1985-1992 for matching grants period and 1993-1999 for formula based grant period are used for all municipalities. The analysis is done using the VAR method for panel data. I find, first, that there are important dynamic interrelationships between the variables in question. Second, I find that during the matching grants period, expenditures Granger-cause revenues uni-directionally, whereas during the formula based grants system the revenues and expenditures Granger-cause each other. The grants Granger-cause expenditures during both periods. In the end of the 1990s municipalities have been able to pay off their loans primarily by cutting expenditures and not by increasing own source revenues.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT) in its series Discussion Papers with number 242.

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Date of creation: 31 Dec 2000
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Handle: RePEc:fer:dpaper:242

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Related research

Keywords: Local government expenditure; revenue; grants; Granger-causality;

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References

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  1. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  2. von Furstenberg, George M & Green, R Jeffrey & Jeong, Jin-Ho, 1986. "Tax and Spend, or Spend and Tax?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 179-88, May.
  3. Hondroyiannis, George & Papapetrou, Evangelia, 1996. " An Examination of the Causal Relationship between Government Spending and Revenue: A Cointegration Analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 89(3-4), pages 363-74, December.
  4. Hoover, Kevin D & Sheffrin, Steven M, 1992. "Causation, Spending, and Taxes: Sand in the Sandbox or Tax Collector for the Welfare State?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 225-48, March.
  5. Bohn, H., 1991. "Budget Balance Through Revenue or Spending Adjustments? Some Historical Evidence for the United States," Weiss Center Working Papers 3-91, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
  6. Matz Dahlberg & Eva Johansson, 1998. "The revenues-expenditures nexus: panel data evidence from Swedish municipalities," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(10), pages 1379-1386.
  7. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-95, November.
  8. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  9. Henning Bohn, . "Budget Balance Through Revenue or Spending Adjustments ? Some Historical Evidence for the United States (Reprint 013)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 3-91, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  10. Ram, Rati, 1988. "A Multicountry Perspective on Causality between Government Revenue and Government Expenditure," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 43(2), pages 261-70.
  11. Barro, Robert J, 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 940-71, October.
  12. Meltzer, Allan H & Richard, Scott F, 1981. "A Rational Theory of the Size of Government," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 914-27, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Antti Moisio, 2001. "On Local Government Spending and Taxation Behaviour - Effect of population size and economic condition," ERSA conference papers ersa01p170, European Regional Science Association.

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