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The Costs of Kyoto Adjustments for Spanish Households

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  • Xavier Labandeira
  • José María Labeaga
  • Miguel Rodríguez

Abstract

In this paper we present a microsimulation model to calculate the effects of a tax levied on Spanish energy-related CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions in order to comply with EU (Kyoto-mandated) targets. The model uses the results of our prior estimation of a demand system with Spanish household data from 1973 to 1995, which is especially designed for simultaneous analysis of different energy goods. Our objective is to obtain in-depth information on the behavioural responses by different types of households, which will allow us to determine the welfare effects of tax-induced price changes, their distribution across society and the environmental consequences within the residential sector. The results show a significant response by households, sizeable emission reductions, important tax revenues, moderate welfare changes and distributional effects. The simulated policy can therefore be considered a feasible option for tackling some of the current and severe inefficiencies in Spanish energy and environmental domains.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2008-02.

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Date of creation: Jan 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2008-02

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  1. Xavier Labandeira & José M. Labeaga & Miguel Rodríguez, 2005. "A Residential Energy Demand System for Spain," Econometrics 0503005, EconWPA.
  2. Gbadebo Oladosu, 2003. "An Almost Ideal Demand System Model of Household Vehicle Fuel Expenditure Allocation in the United States," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 1-21.
  3. Lee, Lung-Fei & Pitt, Mark M, 1986. "Microeconometric Demand Systems with Binding Nonnegativity Constraints: The Dual Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1237-42, September.
  4. Zhang, ZhongXiang & Baranzini, Andrea, 2004. "What do we know about carbon taxes? An inquiry into their impacts on competitiveness and distribution of income," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 507-518, March.
  5. Nicol, C. J., 2003. "Elasticities of demand for gasoline in Canada and the United States," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 201-214, March.
  6. David Pearce, 2003. "The Social Cost of Carbon and its Policy Implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 362-384.
  7. Popp, David C., 2001. "The effect of new technology on energy consumption," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 215-239, July.
  8. Speck, Stefan, 1999. "Energy and carbon taxes and their distributional implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 659-667, October.
  9. Miguel Rodríguez & Xavier Labandeira, 2007. "Wide and Narrow Approaches in Climate Change Policies: The Case of Spain," Working Papers 2007-39, FEDEA.
  10. Larsen, Bodil Merethe & Nesbakken, Runa, 2004. "Household electricity end-use consumption: results from econometric and engineering models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 179-200, March.
  11. Halvorsen, Bente & Larsen, Bodil M., 2001. "The flexibility of household electricity demand over time," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-18, January.
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