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Youth unemployment in the OECD: Demographic shifts, labour market institutions, and macroeconomic shocks

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  • Juan F. Jimeno
  • Diego Rodríguez-Palenzuela

Abstract

We use a panel of OECD countries to gauge the relevance of the relative size of the youth population, labour market institutions and macroeconomic shocks at explaining observed relative youth unemployment rates. We find that the fluctuations of the youth population size caused by the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s and the subsequent decline of fertility in many European countries are positively associated with fluctuations in relative youth unemployment rates. We also Þfind that some labour market institutions contribute to increase youth unemployment, and that the adjustment to macroeconomic shocks has affected relatively more to young workers than to adult workers. To motivate the effects of institution on the relative unemployment rate of young workers, we lay out a simple theoretical model that builds on the imperfect substitutability of workers of dierent ages, and on the non-allocative role of (age specific) wages.

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Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2002-15.

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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2002-15

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  1. Dolado, Juan J. & Felgueroso, Florentino & Jimeno, Juan Francisco, 2000. "Explaining Youth Labour Market Problems In Spain: Crowding-Out, Institutions, Or Technology Shifts?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2398, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Belot, Michèle & van Ours, Jan C, 2000. "Does the Recent Success of some OECD Countries in Lowering their Unemployment Rates lie in the Clever Design of their Labour Market Reforms?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2492, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Bentolila, Samuel & Ichino, Andrea, 2000. "Unemployment and Consumption: Are Job Losses Less Painful near the Mediterranean?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2539, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 1997. "Cohort Crowding and Youth Labor Markets: A Cross-National Analysis," NBER Working Papers 6031, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Steve Nickell & Jan van Ours, 2000. "The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: a European unemployment miracle?," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 135-180, 04.
  6. Robert Shimer, 2001. "The Impact Of Young Workers On The Aggregate Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(3), pages 969-1007, August.
  7. Blanchard, Olivier & Wolfers, Justin, 2000. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C1-33, March.
  8. Nickell, Stephen & Layard, Richard, 1999. "Labor market institutions and economic performance," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 3029-3084 Elsevier.
  9. Bertola, Giuseppe & Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence, 2001. "Comparative Analysis of Labour Market Outcomes: Lessons for the US from International Long-Run Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 3023, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Jimeno, Juan F. & Bentolila, Samuel, 1998. "Regional unemployment persistence (Spain, 1976-1994)," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 25-51, March.
  11. Claudio Lupi & Giorgio Brunello, 2001. "Beyond National Institutions: Labor Taxes and Regional Unemployment in Italy," CESifo Working Paper Series 414, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Dolado, J. J. & Felgueroso, F. & Jimeno, J. F., 2001. "Female employment and occupational changes in the 1990s: How is the EU performing relative to the US?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 875-889, May.
  13. Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Wage Inequality, Collective Bargaining, And Relative Employment From 1985 To 1994: Evidence From Fifteen Oecd Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 564-579, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2009. "Le cause del(l)'(in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & Lavoro, Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini, issue 3, pages 107.
  2. Juan J. Dolado & Marcel Jansen & Juan F. Jimeno, 2005. "Dual employment protection legislation: a framework for analysis," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0510, Banco de Espa�a.
  3. Christian Dustmann & Uta Schönberg, 2007. "Apprenticeship Training and Commitment to Training Provision," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0032, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  4. Dario Sciulli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "University-to-work transitions: the case of Perugia," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 77/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia, Finanza e Statistica.
  5. Shane Niall, OHiggins, 2006. "Still With us After all of These Years: Trends in Youth Labour Market Entry, Home-Leaving And Human Capital Accumulation in Italy 1993-2003," CELPE Discussion Papers 99, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
  6. Samuel Bentolila & Juan F. Jimeno, . "Spanish Unemployment: The End of the Wild Ride?," Working Papers 2003-10, FEDEA.
  7. Messina, Julián, 2004. "Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries," Working Paper Series 0320, European Central Bank.
  8. Kelly, Elish & McGuinness, Seamus & O'Connell, Philip J., 2011. "Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk Among Young People: Evidence from Ireland," Papers WP394, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  9. Dolado, Juan J. & Jansen, Marcel & Jimeno, Juan F., 2007. "A Positive Analysis of Targeted Employment Protection Legislation," IZA Discussion Papers 2679, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Giuseppe Bertola & Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2002. "Labor Market Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns," NBER Working Papers 9043, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Gilles Mourre, 2005. "Wage compression and employment in Europe: First evidence from the structure of earnings survey 2002," European Economy - Economic Papers 232, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  12. Martin Heipertz & Melanie Ward-Warmedinger, 2008. "Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 32(3), pages 255-287.
  13. Daniel, Kirsten & Siebert, W. Stanley, 2004. "Does Employment Protection Reduce the Demand for Unskilled Labor?," IZA Discussion Papers 1290, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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