What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture
AbstractThe ratio of second to fourth digit (2D4D) has been shown to correlate negatively with entrepreneurial skills and financial success. We document that in a sample of entrepreneurs women have a lower 2D4D ratio than men, in sharp contrast with the features of the distribution in random samples. Exploiting variation across communities in indices correlated with women emancipation, we show that in regions where women are less emancipated their average DR is lower than that of men compared to regions with higher indices. This finding is consistent with the existence of gender related obstacles into entrepreneurship so that only women with well above average entrepreneurial skills find it attractive to self-select into entrepreneurship. This finding can rationalize three facts: a) fewer women than men are entrepreneurs; b) the proportion of women among entrepreneurs tends to be higher in countries with higher women emancipation; c) women who break the barrier into entrepreneurship seem to show more masculine traits. We also find that once women enter entrepreneurship, they are equally able than man to translate their ability into outcomes for the firm.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by European University Institute in its series Economics Working Papers with number ECO2011/02.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Badia Fiesolana, Via dei Roccettini, 9, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole (FI) Italy
Web page: http://www.eui.eu/ECO/
More information through EDIRC
Women emancipation; Entrepreneurial ability; Digit Ratio; Testosterone; Entrepreneurship;
Other versions of this item:
- Guiso, Luigi & Rustichini, Aldo, 2011. "What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture," CEPR Discussion Papers 8204, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Luigi Guiso & Aldo Rustichini, 2011. "What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture," EIEF Working Papers Series 1102, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Jan 2011.
- L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
- L21 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Business Objectives of the Firm
- L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
- D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-03-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBE-2011-03-26 (Cognitive & Behavioural Economics)
- NEP-ENT-2011-03-26 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-LTV-2011-03-26 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
- NEP-SOC-2011-03-26 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dreber, Anna & Emma, von Essen & Ranehill, Eva, 2009.
"Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally,"
Research Papers in Economics
2009:17, Stockholm University, Department of Economics, revised 01 Mar 2010.
- Anna Dreber & Emma Essen & Eva Ranehill, 2011. "Outrunning the gender gap—boys and girls compete equally," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 567-582, November.
- Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Ranehill, Eva, 2009. "Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally," SIFR Research Report Series 69, Institute for Financial Research.
- Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Ranehill, Eva, 2009. "Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 709, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 16 Oct 2009.
- L. Guiso & F. Schivardi, 2006.
"What determines entrepreneurial clusters?,"
Working Paper CRENoS
200616, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
- Luigi Guiso & Fabiano Schivardi, 2008. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," EIEF Working Papers Series 0806, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised May 2008.
- Luigi Guiso & Fabiano Schivardi, 2007. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/48, European University Institute.
- Luigi Guiso & Monica Paiella, 2007.
"Risk Aversion, Wealth, and Background Risk,"
Economics Working Papers
ECO2007/47, European University Institute.
- Luigi Guiso & Monica Paiella, 2003. "Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 483, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Monica Paiella & Luigi Guiso, 2004. "Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk," 2004 Meeting Papers 525, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Guiso, Luigi & Paiella, Monica, 2001. "Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 2728, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kimball, Miles S & Sahm, Claudia R & Shapiro, Matthew D, 2008.
"Imputing Risk Tolerance From Survey Responses,"
Journal of the American Statistical Association,
American Statistical Association, vol. 103(483), pages 1028-1038.
- Uri Gneezy & Aldo Rustichini, 2004.
"Gender and Competition at a Young Age,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 377-381, May.
- Ruiu, Gabriele, 2012. "Is fatalism a cultural belief? An empirical analysis on the origin of fatalistic tendencies," MPRA Paper 41705, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marcia Gastaldo).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.