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Learning Strict Nash Equilibria through Reinforcement

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  • Antonella Ianni

Abstract

This paper studies the analytical properties of the reinforcement learning model proposed in Erev and Roth (1998), also termed cumulative reinforcement learning in Laslier et al. (2001). The stochastic model of learning accounts for two main elements: the Law of Effect (positive reinforcement of actions that perform well) and the Power Law of Practice (learning curves tend to be steeper initially). The paper establishes a relation between the learning process and the underlying deterministic replicator equation. The main results show that if the solution trajectories of the latter converge su¢ ciently fast, then the probability that all the realizations of the learning process over a given spell of time, possibly infinite, becomes arbitrarily close to one, from some time on. In particular, the paper shows that the property of fast convergence is always satisfied in proximity of a strict Nash equilibrium. The results also provide an explicit estimate of the approximation error that could prove to be useful in empirical analysis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European University Institute in its series Economics Working Papers with number ECO2007/21.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco2007/21

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  1. J.-F. Laslier & R. Topol & B. Walliser, 1999. "A behavioral learning process in games," THEMA Working Papers 99-03, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  2. Michel BenaÔm & J–rgen W. Weibull, 2003. "Deterministic Approximation of Stochastic Evolution in Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(3), pages 873-903, 05.
  3. Cross, John G, 1973. "A Stochastic Learning Model of Economic Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 239-66, May.
  4. Ed Hopkins, 2004. "Two Competing Models of How People Learn in Games," ESE Discussion Papers 51, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  5. Beggs, A.W., 2005. "On the convergence of reinforcement learning," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 1-36, May.
  6. Ritzberger, Klaus & Weibull, Jorgen W, 1995. "Evolutionary Selection in Normal-Form Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(6), pages 1371-99, November.
  7. Izquierdo, Luis R. & Izquierdo, Segismundo S. & Gotts, Nicholas M. & Polhill, J. Gary, 2007. "Transient and asymptotic dynamics of reinforcement learning in games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 259-276, November.
  8. Tilman B�rgers & Rajiv Sarin, . "Learning Through Reinforcement and Replicator Dynamics," ELSE working papers 051, ESRC Centre on Economics Learning and Social Evolution.
  9. Colin Camerer & Teck-Hua Ho, 1999. "Experience-weighted Attraction Learning in Normal Form Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 827-874, July.
  10. Arthur, W Brian, 1993. "On Designing Economic Agents That Behave Like Human Agents," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, February.
  11. Ianni, A., 2002. "Reinforcement learning and the power law of practice: some analytical results," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0203, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  12. Ianni, Antonella, 2011. "Learning Strict Nash Equilibria through Reinforcement," MPRA Paper 33936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Martin Posch, 1997. "Cycling in a stochastic learning algorithm for normal form games," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 193-207.
  14. Roth, Alvin E. & Erev, Ido, 1995. "Learning in extensive-form games: Experimental data and simple dynamic models in the intermediate term," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 164-212.
  15. Ed Hopkins & Martin Posch, 2004. "Attainability of Boundary Points under Reinforcement Learning," ESE Discussion Papers 79, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  16. Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-81, September.
  17. Young, H Peyton, 1993. "The Evolution of Conventions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(1), pages 57-84, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Antonella Ianni, 2007. "Learning Strict Nash Equilibria through Reinforcement," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/21, European University Institute.

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