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The Effects of Collateral on SME Performance in Japan

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  • ONO Arito
  • SAKAI Koji
  • UESUGI Iichiro

Abstract

This paper examines how collateral and personal guarantees affect firms' ex-post performance employing the propensity score matching estimation approach. Based on a unique firm-level panel data set of more than 500 small and medium-sized borrower firms in Japan, we find the following: (1) the increase in profitability and reduction in riskiness of borrowers that provide collateral to lenders are more sizeable than of borrowers that do not; (2) On the other hand, the lending attitude and monitoring frequency of borrowers' main banks do not change significantly at the time of collateral being pledged; and (3) The increase in profitability of collateralized borrowers is driven by cost reductions rather than by sales growth. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that by providing collateral, borrowers curb their own incentives for moral hazard in order to further enhance their creditworthiness.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) in its series Discussion papers with number 08037.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:08037

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  1. Manove, Michael & Padilla, A Jorge & Pagano, Marco, 2001. "Collateral versus Project Screening: A Model of Lazy Banks," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 726-44, Winter.
  2. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
  3. Caliendo, Marco & Kopeinig, Sabine, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," IZA Discussion Papers 1588, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1988. "Collateral, loan quality, and bank risk," Finance and Economics Discussion Series, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 51, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M., 2007. "A lender-based theory of collateral," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 826-859, June.
  6. Arito Ono & Iichiro Uesugi, 2009. "Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 935-960, 08.
  7. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  8. Stanley D. Longhofer & João A.C. Santos, 1998. "The importance of bank seniority for relationship lending," Working Paper 9808, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  9. Ono, Arito & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2008. "The Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University 371, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  10. Rajan, Raghuram & Winton, Andrew, 1995. " Covenants and Collateral as Incentives to Monitor," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1113-46, September.
  11. Jimenez, Gabriel & Salas, Vicente & Saurina, Jesus, 2006. "Determinants of collateral," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 255-281, August.
  12. Jimenez, Gabriel & Saurina, Jesus, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2191-2212, September.
  13. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  14. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V & Udell, Gregory F, 1991. "Secured Lending and Default Risk: Equilibrium Analysis, Policy Implications and Empirical Results," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 458-72, May.
  15. Gabriel Jiménez & Jesús Saurina, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0414, Banco de Espa�a.
  16. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
  17. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-89, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Cadot, Julien, 2011. "Collaterals, Bank Monitoring and Performance: the Case of Newly Established Wine Farmers," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 103414, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  2. Raphael W. Lam & Jongsoon Shin, 2012. "What Role Can Financial Policies Play in Revitalizing SMEs in Japan?," IMF Working Papers 12/291, International Monetary Fund.

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