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Regulating on-street parking

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Author Info

  • Edward Calthrop

    ()
    (K.U.Leuven, C.E.S., Energy, Transport and Environment)

  • Stef Proost

    ()
    (K.U.Leuven, C.E.S., Energy, Transport and Environment)

Abstract

Consider the choices available to a shopper driving to a city and trying to park downtown. One option, typical to many cities, is to follow the signposts to an off-street parking facility, which is often privately operated. Another option is to search for an on-street spot. If this proves unsuccessful, it is always possible to return to the off-street facility. We formalise such a setting and examine optimal on-street parking policy in the presence of an off-street market. Not surprisingly, the amount of socially-wasteful searching behaviour is shown to depend on the prices of both the off- and on-street market. If the off-street market is run competitively, optimal on-street policy reduces to a simple and attractive rule: set the on-street price equal to the resource cost of off-street parking supply. Other pricing rules result in either excessive searching behaviour or excessive off-street investment costs. Time restrictions - a common alternative to on-street fees - are also shown to be inefficient. In practice, however, off-street markets are unlikely to be competitive. We examine the case of a single off-street supplier playing as a Stackelberg follower to the government regulated on-street market. Based on a numerical example (calibrated to London), optimal on-street policy is shown to either involve setting a relatively high on-street price, such that the monopolist is induced to undercut and gain the entire parking demand, or setting a relatively low price, while the monopolist maximises profit on the residual demand curve. Which strategy is optimal is shown to be parameter dependent.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment in its series Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series with number ete0202.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ete:etewps:ete0202

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Web page: http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/energmil
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Keywords: parking; transport pricing; publicly provided goods;

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References

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  1. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1995. "The economics of regulatory parking policies: The (IM)possibilities of parking policies in traffic regulation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 141-156, March.
  2. Guesnerie Roger & Roberts Kevin, 1980. "Effective policy tools and quantity controls," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 8014, CEPREMAP.
  3. Calthrop, Edward & Proost, Stef, 2006. "Regulating on-street parking," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 29-48, January.
  4. Sundaram,Rangarajan K., 1996. "A First Course in Optimization Theory," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521497701, October.
  5. Glazer, Amihai & Niskanen, Esko, 2001. "Parking fees and congestion," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9h51t02k, University of California Transportation Center.
  6. Sundaram,Rangarajan K., 1996. "A First Course in Optimization Theory," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521497190, October.
  7. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 1999. "Modeling Parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 97-124, January.
  8. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1991. "A temporal and spatial equilibrium analysis of commuter parking," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 301-335, August.
  9. Anderson, Simon P. & de Palma, Andre, 2004. "The economics of pricing parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 1-20, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Richard Arnott, 2005. "Spatial Competition between Parking Garages and Downtown Parking Policy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 627, Boston College Department of Economics.
  2. Jos van Ommeren & Jesper de Groote & Giuliano Mingardo, 2013. "Residential Parking Permits and Parking Supply," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-059/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 2009. "Downtown parking in auto city," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-14, January.
  4. Stef Proost & Inge Mayeres, 2005. "Towards better transport pricing and taxation in Belgium," Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series ete0504, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment.
  5. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren, 2006. "An integrated model of downtown parking and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 418-442, November.
  6. Hasker, Kevin & Inci, Eren, 2012. "Free Parking for All in Shopping Malls," MPRA Paper 35978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Inga Molenda & Gernot Sieg, 2013. "Residential Parking in Vibrant City Districts," Working Papers 18, Institute of Transport Economics, University of Muenster.
  8. van Ommeren, Jos & de Groote, Jesper & Mingardo, Giuliano, 2014. "Residential parking permits and parking supply," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 33-44.
  9. Madsen, Edith & Mulalic, Ismir & Pilegaard, Ninette, 2013. "A model for estimation of the demand for on-street parking," MPRA Paper 52301, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Martijn Kobus & Eva Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau & Piet Rietveld & Jos Van Ommeren, 2012. "Drivers' willingness to pay for curb parking (rather than in a garage)," ERSA conference papers ersa12p753, European Regional Science Association.
  11. Kobus, Martijn B.W. & Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva & Rietveld, Piet & Van Ommeren, Jos N., 2013. "The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 395-403.
  12. Martijn Kobus & Eva Gutierrez Puigarnau & Piet Rietveld & Jos Van Ommeren, 2012. "The On-Street Parking Premium and Car Drivers' Choice between Street and Garage Parking," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-040/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  13. Jos van Ommeren & Jesper de Groote & Giuliano Mingardo, 2013. "Residential Parking Permits and Parking Supply," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-059/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Edward Calthrop & Stef Proost, 2002. "Regulating on-street parking," Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series ete0202, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment.
  15. Richard J. Arnott & Eren Inci & John Rowse, 2013. "Downtown Curbside Parking Capacity," CESifo Working Paper Series 4085, CESifo Group Munich.
  16. Caicedo, Felix & Diaz, Alejandra, 2013. "Case analysis of simultaneous concessions of parking meters and underground parking facilities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 358-378.

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