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Firm Growth and R&D Expenditure

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  • Alexander Coad
  • Rekha Rao

Abstract

We apply a panel vector autoregression model to a firm-level longitudinal database to observe the co-evolution of sales growth, employment growth, profits growth and growth of R&D expenditure. Contrary to expectations, profit growth seems to have little detectable effect on R&D investment. Instead, firms appear to increase their total R&D expenditure following growth in sales and growth of employment. In a sense, firms behave ‘as if’ they aim for a roughly constant ratio of R&D to employment (or sales). We observe heterogeneous effects for growing or shrinking firms however, suggesting that firms are less willing to reduce their R&D levels following a negative growth shock than they are willing to increase R&D after a positive shock.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group in its series Papers on Economics and Evolution with number 2007-10.

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Date of creation: Nov 2007
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Handle: RePEc:esi:evopap:2007-10

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Keywords: Firm Growth; Panel VAR; R&D expenditure; Industrial Dynamics Length 32 pages;

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References

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  1. Binder, Michael & Hsiao, Cheng & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2005. "Estimation And Inference In Short Panel Vector Autoregressions With Unit Roots And Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(04), pages 795-837, August.
  2. Hall, Bronwyn & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 449-469, April.
  3. Delmar, Frederic & Davidsson, Per & Gartner, William B., 2003. "Arriving at the high-growth firm," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 189-216, March.
  4. Paul A. David & Bronwyn H. Hall & Andrew A. Toole, 1999. "Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence," Working Papers 99023, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  5. repec:hal:cesptp:halshs-00175048 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Alex Coad, 2007. "Neoclassical vs evolutionary theories of financial constraints : critique and prospectus," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne r07008, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  7. Holger Gorg & Eric Strobl, 2007. "The Effect of R&D Subsidies on Private R&D," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(294), pages 215-234, 05.
  8. Alex Coad, 2007. "Exploring the "mechanics" of firm growth : evidence from a short-panel VAR," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne r07037, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  9. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2001. "Vector Autoregressions," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 101-115, Fall.
  10. Alex Coad, 2007. "A Closer Look at Serial Growth Rate Correlation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 69-82, August.
  11. Giulio Bottazzi & Alex Coad & Nadia Jacoby & Angelo Secchi, 2011. "Corporate growth and industrial dynamics: evidence from French manufacturing," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(1), pages 103-116.
  12. Ulrich Witt & Christian Zellner, 2005. "Knowledge-based entrepreneurship : The organizational side of technology commercialization," CEMI Working Papers cemi-report-2005-002, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Collège du Management de la Technologie, Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship Institute, Chaire en Economie et Management de l'Innovation.
  13. Alex Coad & Rekha Rao, 2006. "Innovation and Firm Growth in High-Tech Sectors: A Quantile Regression Approach," LEM Papers Series 2006/18, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  14. Kaplan, Steven N & Zingales, Luigi, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215, February.
  15. Spiros Bougheas & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2003. "Is R & D Financially Constrained? Theory and Evidence from Irish Manufacturing," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 159-174, March.
  16. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521608275, October.
  17. Giulio Bottazzi & Angelo Secchi, 2003. "Common Properties and Sectoral Specificities in the Dynamics of U.S. Manufacturing Companies," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 217-232, December.
  18. Dominique Guellec & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie, 2003. "The impact of public R&D expenditure on business R&D," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 225-243.
  19. Joao Pedro Azevedo, 2004. "GRQREG: Stata module to graph the coefficients of a quantile regression," Statistical Software Components S437001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 17 Mar 2011.
  20. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
  21. George Symeonidis, 1996. "Innovation, Firm Size and Market Structure: Schumpeterian Hypotheses and Some New Themes," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 161, OECD Publishing.
  22. Alex Coad, 2005. "Testing the Principle of "Growth of the Fitter": The Relationship between Profits and Firm Growth," Emory Economics 0531, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  23. Alessio Moneta, 2005. "Causality in macroeconometrics: some considerations about reductionism and realism," Journal of Economic Methodology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 433-453.
  24. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  25. Henry Grabowski & John Vernon, 2000. "The determinants of pharmaceutical research and development expenditures," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 201-215.
  26. Geroski, Paul A, 1999. "The Growth of Firms in Theory and in Practice," CEPR Discussion Papers 2092, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  27. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2006:i:13:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Coad, Alex & Segarra Blasco, Agustí & Teruel Carrizosa, Mercedes, 2010. "Like milk or wine: Does firm performance improve with age?," Working Papers 2072/179572, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  2. Tommaso Ciarli, 2012. "Structural interactions and long run growth: An application of Experimental Design to Agent Based Models," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2012-06, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group.
  3. Segarra Blasco, Agustí & Teruel Carrizosa, Mercedes, 2011. "High Growth Firms and Innovation: an empirical analysis for Spanish firms," Working Papers 2072/179669, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  4. Florian Szücs, 2013. "M&A and R&D: Asymmetric Effects on Acquirers and Targets?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1331, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  5. Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus & Oberhofer, Harald & Vincelette, Gallina A., 2014. "Institutional Barriers and Job Creation in Central and Eastern Europe," Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2014-1, University of Salzburg.
  6. Alessandra Colombelli & Francesco Quatraro, 2013. "The persistence of firms' knowledge base: A quantile approach to Italian data," Working Papers hal-00867132, HAL.
  7. Francesco Quatraro, 2013. "Co-evolutionary patterns in regional knowledge bases and economic structure: evidence from European Regions," Working Papers hal-00992080, HAL.
  8. Bornhäll, Anders & Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas, 2014. "Employment Protection Legislation and Firm Growth: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," HUI Working Papers 102, HUI Research.
  9. Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958- & Teruel, Mercedes, 2014. "High-growth firms and innovation: an empirical analysis for Spanish firms," Working Papers 2072/228402, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  10. Matthias Bürger, 2011. "Dynamics of Collaborative Invention Tracking Growth of Cooperative and Total Patents in the Region," Jena Economic Research Papers 2011-045, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  11. Alessandra Colombelli & Jackie Krafft & Francesco Quatraro, 2012. "High Growth Firms and Technological Knowledge: Do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies?," Working Papers hal-00666707, HAL.
  12. ELKEMALI, Taoufik & BEN REJEB, Aymen & MATOUSSI, Hamadi, 2013. "R&D Intensity and Financing Decisions: Evidence from European Firms," MPRA Paper 52059, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Oct 2013.
  13. Coad, Alex & Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958- & Teruel, Mercedes, 2013. "Innovation and firm growth: Does firm age play a role?," Working Papers 2072/211886, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  14. Werner Hölzl & Klaus Friesenbichler, 2010. "High-growth firms, innovation and the distance to the frontier," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(2), pages 1016-1024.
  15. Werner Hölzl, 2009. "Is the R&D behaviour of fast-growing SMEs different? Evidence from CIS III data for 16 countries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 59-75, June.
  16. Jorge Alberto Rivera Godoy, 2012. "La incidencia de la innovación sobre la creación de valor: propuesta de un modelo desde la perspectiva financiera," REVISTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ECONÓMICAS, UNIVERSIDAD MILITAR NUEVA GRANADA.
  17. Krzysztof Szczygielski & Wojciech Grabowski & Richard Woodward, 2013. "Innovation and the Growth of Service Firms:The Polish Case," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0453, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  18. Bettina Becker, 2013. "The Determinants of R&D Investment: A Survey of the Empirical Research," Discussion Paper Series 2013_09, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Sep 2013.
  19. Alexander Coad, 2007. "Disentangling the firm growth process: evidence from a recursive panel VAR," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2007-15, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group.

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