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Household incomes and redistribution in the European Union: quantifying the equalising properties of taxes and benefits

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  • Immervoll, Herwig
  • Levy, Horacio
  • Lietz, Christine
  • Mantovani, D.
  • O'Donoghue, Cathal
  • Sutherland, Holly
  • Verbist, Gerlinde

Abstract

The systems of direct taxes and cash benefits in the Member States of the European Union vary considerably in size and structure. We explore their direct impacts on cross-sectional income inequality (termed "redistributive effect" for the purpose of this paper) using EUROMOD, a tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union. This relies on harmonised household micro-data representative of each national population together with simulations of entitlements to cash benefits and liabilities for taxes and social contributions. It allows us to draw a more comprehensive – and comparable – picture of the combined effects of transfers and taxes than is usually possible. We decompose the redistributive effect of tax-benefit systems to assess and compare the effectiveness of individual policies at reducing income disparities. The following categories of benefits and taxes are considered both individually and in combination: income taxes, social contributions, cash benefits designed to target the poor or redistribute inter-personally (through means-testing) as well as cash benefits intended to redistribute intra-personally across the lifecycle (through social insurance or contingency-based entitlement). We derive results for the 15 "old" members of the European Union and present them for each country separately as well as for the EU-15 as a whole.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research in its series EUROMOD Working Papers with number EM9/05.

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Date of creation: 01 Jul 2005
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Publication status: published
Handle: RePEc:ese:emodwp:em9-05

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  1. Christopher Heady & Theodore Mitrakos & Panos Tsakloglou, 2001. "The distributional impact of social transfers in the European Union: evidence from the ECHP," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 547-565., December.
  2. Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1983. "On an Extension of the Gini Inequality Index," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 24(3), pages 617-28, October.
  3. Jean-Marc Burniaux & Thai-Thanh Dang & Douglas Fore & Michael F. Förster & Marco Mira d'Ercole & Howard Oxley, 1998. "Income Distribution and Poverty in Selected OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers, OECD Publishing 189, OECD Publishing.
  4. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1993. "Progressivity, Redistribution, and Equity, with Application to the British Tax and Benefit System," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , , vol. 48(3), pages 350-65.
  5. Robin Boadway & Michael Keen, 1999. "Redistribution," Working Papers, Queen's University, Department of Economics 983, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  6. repec:ese:emodwp:em0-99 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Whitehouse, Edward, 2000. "How poor are the old? a survey of evidence from 44 countries," Social Protection Discussion Papers, The World Bank 23141, The World Bank.
  8. Zandvakili, Sourushe, 1994. "Income Distribution and Redistribution through Taxation: An International Comparison," Empirical Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 473-91.
  9. repec:ese:emodwp:em1-03 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1980. "A single-parameter generalization of the Gini indices of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 67-86, February.
  11. Franco Peracchi, 2002. "The European Community Household Panel: A review," Empirical Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 63-90.
  12. Berglas, Eitan, 1971. "Income Tax and the Distribution of Income: An International Comparison," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , , vol. 26(4), pages 532-45.
  13. Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy & van der Burg, Hattem & Calonge, Samuel & Christiansen, Terkel & Citoni, Guido & Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Gerfin, Michael & Gross, Lorna & Hakinnen, Unto, 1999. "Redistributive effect, progressivity and differential tax treatment: Personal income taxes in twelve OECD countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 73-98, April.
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