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Firm heterogeneity and market selection in Sub-Saharan Africa : does it spur industrial progress?

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  • Shiferaw, A.

Abstract

This article investigates the processes of market selection and industry dynamics in a sub-Saharan Africa context. Using census-based longitudinal data, it examines the distribution of productivity within an industry to determine whether patterns of firm entry, exit, and survival are driven by underlying efficiency differences. It also estimates the contributions to industry-level productivity growth of producer turnover and the reallocation of resources from less efficient producers to more efficient ones. The article shows that markets in sub-Saharan Africa, as represented by Ethiopia, are at least as strong as those in other regions in selecting efficient firms. Tolerance of inefficient firms also declines with the degree of exposure to international competition. While reallocation of resources played a positive and significant role for industry-level productivity growth, it only managed to offset the declining trend in intrafirm productivity. The article concludes that although markets have played the expected disciplinary role, long-term industrial growth requires more than functional markets, particularly in addressing firm-level innovation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague in its series ISS Working Papers - General Series with number 19171.

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Date of creation: 01 Sep 2005
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Handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:19171

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Related research

Keywords: industrial development; efficiency; productivity; manufacturing; theory of the firm; market studies; Africa south of Sahara; Ethiopia;

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References

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  1. Jovanovic, Boyan & MacDonald, Glenn M, 1994. "Competitive Diffusion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 24-52, February.
  2. Farhad Noorbakhsh & Alberto Paloni, 1998. "Structural adjustment programmes and export supply response," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 555-573.
  3. James Tybout, 1998. "Manufacturing Firms In Developing Countries: How Well Do They Do, And Why?," Development and Comp Systems 9805004, EconWPA.
  4. Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1995. "Trade liberalization and the dimensions of efficiency change in Mexican manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 53-78, August.
  5. James Levinsohn & Amil Petrin, 2003. "Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 317-341.
  6. Amil Petrin & Brian P. Poi & James Levinsohn, 2004. "Production function estimation in Stata using inputs to control for unobservables," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 113-123, June.
  7. Harrison, Ann E., 1994. "Productivity, imperfect competition and trade reform : Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 53-73, February.
  8. Dani Rodrik, 1998. "Trade Policy and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," NBER Working Papers 6562, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. James Levinsohn & Amil Petrin, 2000. "Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables," NBER Working Papers 7819, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Dixit, A., 1988. "Entry And Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty," Papers 91, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
  11. S.A. Lippman & R.P. Rumelt, 1982. "Uncertain Imitability: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency under Competition," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 418-438, Autumn.
  12. Tybout, James R, 1992. "Linking Trade and Productivity: New Research Directions," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(2), pages 189-211, May.
  13. Eric J. Bartelsman & Mark Doms, 2000. "Understanding productivity: lessons from longitudinal microdata," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-50, September.
  15. Nelson, Richard R, 1981. "Research on Productivity Growth and Productivity Differences: Dead Ends and New Departures," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 19(3), pages 1029-64, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Shiferaw, Admasu & Bedi, Arjun S., 2010. "The Dynamics of Job Creation and Job Destruction: Is Sub-Saharan Africa Different?," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 59, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  2. Haile, Getinet Astatike & Srour, Ilina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "The Impact of Globalization and Technology Transfer on Manufacturing Employment and Skills in Ethiopia," IZA Discussion Papers 7820, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Klapper, Leora & Richmond, Christine, 2011. "Patterns of business creation, survival and growth : evidence from Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5828, The World Bank.
  4. Shiferaw, Admasu, 2009. "Survival of Private Sector Manufacturing Establishments in Africa: The Role of Productivity and Ownership," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 572-584, March.
  5. Shiferaw, A., 2006. "Entry, survival, and growth of manufacturing firms in Ethiopia," ISS Working Papers - General Series 19185, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  6. Admasu Shiferaw, 2009. "Which Firms Invest Less Under Uncertainty? Evidence from Ethiopian Manufacturing," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 2, Courant Research Centre PEG, revised 30 Jun 2013.
  7. Shiferaw, A., 2006. "Capital adjustment patterns and uncertainty in African manufacturing," ISS Working Papers - General Series 435, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  8. Fukunishi, Takahiro, 2013. "Political crisis and suspension of duty-free access in Madagascar : assessment of impacts on the garment industry," IDE Discussion Papers 422, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

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