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The Rise and Fall of S&P500 Variance Futures

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  • Chang, C-L.
  • Jimenez-Martin, J-A.
  • McAleer, M.J.
  • Perez-Amaral, T.

Abstract

Modelling, monitoring and forecasting volatility are indispensible to sensible portfolio risk management. The volatility of an asset of composite index can be traded by using volatility derivatives, such as volatility and variance swaps, options and futures. The most popular volatility index is VIX, which is a key measure of market expectations of volatility, and hence also an important barometer of investor sentiment and market volatility. Investors interpret the VIX cash index as a “fear” index, and of VIX options and VIX futures as derivatives of the “fear” index. VIX is based on S&P500 call and put options over a wide range of strike prices, and hence is not model based. Speculators can trade on volatility risk with VIX derivatives, with views on whether volatility will increase or decrease in the future, while hedgers can use volatility derivatives to avoid exposure to volatility risk. VIX and its options and futures derivatives has been widely analysed in recent years. An alternative volatility derivative to VIX is the S&P500 variance futures, which is an expectation of the variance of the S&P500 cash index. Variance futures are futures contracts written on realized variance, or standardized variance swaps. The S&P500 variance futures are not model based, so the assumptions underlying the index do not seem to have been clearly understood. As variance futures are typically thinly traded, their returns and volatility are not easy to model accurately using a variety of model specifications. This paper analyses the volatility in S&P500 3-month variance futures before, during and after the GFC, as well as for the full data period, for each of three alternative conditional volatility models and three densities, in order to determine whether exposure to risk can be incorporated into a financial portfolio without taking positions on the S&P500 index itself.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute in its series Econometric Institute Research Papers with number EI2011-37.

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Date of creation: 16 Nov 2011
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Handle: RePEc:ems:eureir:26880

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Keywords: 12-month variance futures; 3-month variance futures; financial derivatives; futures; options; risk exposure; risk management; swaps; volatility;

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References

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  1. Chia-Lin Chang & Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín & Michael McAleer & Teodosio Pérez-Amaral, 2011. "Risk Management of Risk under the Basel Accord: Forecasting Value-at-Risk of VIX Futures," Working Papers in Economics 11/12, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  2. Ishida, I. & McAleer, M.J. & Oya, K., 2011. "Estimating the Leverage Parameter of Continuous-time Stochastic Volatility Models Using High Frequency S&P 500 VIX," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2011-10, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  3. Roberto Casarin & Chia-Lin Chang & Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín & Michael McAleer & Teodosio Pérez Amaral, 2011. "Risk Management of Risk Under the Basel Accord: A Bayesian Approach to Forecasting Value-at-Risk of VIX Futures," Working Papers in Economics 11/26, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  4. Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  5. Isao Ishida & Michael McAleer & Kosuke Oya, 2011. "Estimating the Leverage Parameter of Continuous-time Stochastic Volatility Models Using High Frequency S&P 500 and VIX," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2011-17, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
  6. Michael McAleer & Juan-Angel Jimenez-Martin & Teodosio Perez-Amaral, 2009. "Has the Basel II Accord Encouraged Risk Management During the 2008-09 Financial Crisis?," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-643, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  7. Shiqing Ling & Michael McAleer, 2001. "On Adaptive Estimation in Nonstationary ARMA Models with GARCH Errors," ISER Discussion Paper 0548, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  8. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-70, March.
  9. Caporin, M. & McAleer, M.J., 2010. "Do We Really Need Both BEKK and DCC? A Tale of Two Multivariate GARCH Models," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2010-13, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  10. Shiqing Ling & Michael McAleer, 2001. "Asymptotic Theory for a Vector ARMA-GARCH Model," ISER Discussion Paper 0549, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  11. Chatayan Wiphatthanananthakul & Michael McAleer, 2009. "Simple Expected Volatility (SEV) Index: Application to SET50 Index Options," CARF F-Series CARF-F-173, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  12. Li, W K & Ling, Shiqing & McAleer, Michael, 2002. " Recent Theoretical Results for Time Series Models with GARCH Errors," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 245-69, July.
  13. Shiqing Ling & Michael McAleer, 2001. "Stationarity and the Existence of Moments of a Family of GARCH Processes," ISER Discussion Paper 0535, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  14. Massimiliano Caporin & Michael McAleer, 2010. "Model Selection and Testing of Conditional and Stochastic Volatility Models," Working Papers in Economics 10/58, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  15. Brenner, Menachem & Ou, Ernest Y. & Zhang, Jin E., 2006. "Hedging volatility risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 811-821, March.
  16. BAUWENS, Luc & HAFNER, Christian & LAURENT, Sébastien, 2011. "Volatility models," CORE Discussion Papers 2011058, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  17. Ling, Shiqing & McAleer, Michael, 2002. "NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT MOMENT CONDITIONS FOR THE GARCH(r,s) AND ASYMMETRIC POWER GARCH(r,s) MODELS," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(03), pages 722-729, June.
  18. McAleer, Michael, 2005. "Automated Inference And Learning In Modeling Financial Volatility," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(01), pages 232-261, February.
  19. McAleer, Michael & Chan, Felix & Marinova, Dora, 2007. "An econometric analysis of asymmetric volatility: Theory and application to patents," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 139(2), pages 259-284, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. David E. Allen & Michael McAleer & Robert Powell & Abhay K. Singh, 2013. "A Non-Parametric and Entropy Based Analysis of the Relationship between the VIX and S&P 500," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-018/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Shawkat Hammoudeh & Michael McAleer, 2012. "Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview," Working Papers in Economics 12/10, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  3. Chang, Chia-Lin, 2014. "Modelling a Latent Daily Tourism Financial Conditions Index," MPRA Paper 54887, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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