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Employment penalty after motherhood in Spain

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  • Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech
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    Abstract

    This paper investigates whether there exists an employment penalty from motherhood in Spain. In particular, we are interested in transitions from employment to non-employment and downward occupational mobility. Results show that Spanish women experience significant transitions from employment to non-employment after first birth and these shifts are strongly linked to pre-birth job features and education. We find that around 40 percent of Spanish women who were at work one year before childbearing are not in employment one year after. Our analysis reveals that one third of them are unemployed nine months later. Longer follow-up shows that most of those who exit from employment remain out of work permanently. We find that fixed-term contracts (i.e. labour market uncertainty) impacts negatively on the likelihood of re-entry. On the other hand, accumulated human capital (experience and higher level of education) increases the probability of staying at work. There is evidence of differences between cohorts. Whereas in young cohorts exit is exclusively linked to childbearing, in old cohorts leaving employment is already initiated at marriage. For those Spanish women returning to work after confinement, downward occupational mobility is not common due to the lack of part-time jobs.

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    File URL: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/20068/
    File Function: Open access version.
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library in its series LSE Research Online Documents on Economics with number 20068.

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    Length: 43 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2002
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ehl:lserod:20068

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    Related research

    Keywords: employment transitions; fixed-term contracts; motherhood; education;

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    References

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    1. Albrecht, J & Edin, P-A & Sundstrom, M & Vroman, S-B, 1996. "Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earning : A Reexamination Using Swedish Data," Papers 1996-23, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    2. Óystein Kravdal, 1992. "Forgone labor participation and earning due to childbearing among Norwegian women," Demography, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 545-563, November.
    3. Adam, Paula, 1996. "Mothers in an Insider-Outsider Economy: The Puzzle of Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 301-23, August.
    4. Ondrich, Jan & Spiess, C Katharina & Yang, Qing, 1996. "Barefoot and in a German Kitchen: Federal Parental Leave and Benefit Policy and the Return to Work after Childbirth in Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 247-66, August.
    5. Paula Adam, 1996. "Mothers in an insider-outsider economy: The puzzle of Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 301-323.
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