Job Creation and the Self-employed Firm Size: evidence from Spain
AbstractOver the last decade, Spain created more jobs than any other country in Europe; however, now it is destroying them at an equal pace. Nevertheless, the relationship between the level of employment and the level of self-employment has remained relatively stable. In this context, there is a considerable policy interest in the way in which the self-employed firm in Spain creates and destroys employment, i.e., in the role of the self-employed as creators of additional job opportunities. This paper provides evidence of the existence of a long-term relationship between the self-employed firm that hires external labor and employees hired by third parties in Spain, while accounting for the existence of an abrupt shift in the size of self-employed firms during the previous crisis (1991 to 1993). These findings are qualified testing whether this relationship is time-dependent. Our results suggest that the null hypothesis of linear cointegration would be rejected in favor of a two-regime threshold cointegration model, that is, in favor of a time-sensitive relationship with two opposite regimes. These two regimes differ in the way that the two components of the self-employed firm size respond to restore equilibrium. In this paper, alternative rationales for explaining these findings are also discussed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia in its series Working Papers with number 1202.
Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Edifici Departamental Oriental, Campus dels Tarongers, Avda. dels Tarongers, S/N (4P15), 46022 - València
Phone: 963 82 83 49
Fax: 963 82 83 54
Web page: http://www.estructuraeconomica.es
More information through EDIRC
Self-employed firm size; Entrepreneurship; Job Creation; Cointegration; Self-employment; Structural Break; Threshold cointegration;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
- C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models &bull Diffusion Processes
- C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
- J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
- M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Perron, P., 1994.
"Further Evidence on Breaking Trend Functions in Macroeconomic Variables,"
Cahiers de recherche
9421, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
- Perron, P., 1990. "Further Evidence On Breaking Trend Functions In Macroeconomics Variables," Papers 350, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
- Perron, P., 1994. "Further Evidence on Breaking Trend Functions in Macroeconomic Variables," Cahiers de recherche 9421, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 1998.
"Business Start-ups by the Unemployed - an Econometric Analysis Based on Firm Data,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
98-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 2000. "Business start-ups by the unemployed -- an econometric analysis based on firm data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 629-663, September.
- Giulia Faggio & Stephen Nickell, 2006.
"Patterns of Work Across the OECD,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0730, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?,"
8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- E. Santarelli & M. Vivarelli, 2000.
"Is Subsidizing Entry An Optimal Policy?,"
378, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Perron, P. & Ng, S., 1994.
"Useful Modifications to Some Unit Root Tests with Dependent Errors and Their Local Asymptotic Properties,"
Cahiers de recherche
9427, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Perron, Pierre & Ng, Serena, 1996. "Useful Modifications to Some Unit Root Tests with Dependent Errors and Their Local Asymptotic Properties," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(3), pages 435-63, July.
- Perron, P. & Ng, S., 1994. "Useful Modifications to Some Unit Root Tests with Dependent Errors and Their Local Asymptotic Properties," Cahiers de recherche 9427, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Concepción Román & Emilio Congregado & José Millán, 2011. "Dependent self-employment as a way to evade employment protection legislation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 363-392, October.
- Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, November.
- Perron, Pierre & Rodriguez, Gabriel, 2003.
"GLS detrending, efficient unit root tests and structural change,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 1-27, July.
- Tom Doan, . "GLSDETREND: RATS procedure to perform local to unity GLS detrending," Statistical Software Components RTS00077, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Tom Doan, . "PERRONRODRIGUEZ: RATS procedure to perform Perron-Rodriguez unit root test allowing for break at unknown date," Statistical Software Components RTS00156, Boston College Department of Economics.
- PERRON, Pierre & RODRIGUEZ, Gabriel, 1998. "GLS Detrending, Efficient Unit Root Tests and Structural Change," Cahiers de recherche 9809, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Rui Baptista & Roy Thurik, 2004. "The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment: is Portugal an Outlier?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-40, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- Krishna B. Kumar & Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1999.
"What Determines Firm Size?,"
NBER Working Papers
7208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kumar, Krishna B & Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1999. "What Determines Firm Size?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2211, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Krishna B. Kumar & Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, . "What Determines Firm Size?," CRSP working papers 496, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Storey, 2006.
"The effect of business regulations on nascent and young business entrepreneurship,"
Scales Research Reports
H200609, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- André Stel & David Storey & A. Thurik, 2007. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-186, March.
- van Stel, A.J. & Storey, D. & Thurik, A.R., 2006. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-052-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
- Garibaldi, Pietro & Pacelli, Lia & Borgarello, Andrea, 2003.
"Employment Protection Legislation and the Size of Firms,"
IZA Discussion Papers
787, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pietro Garibaldi & Lia Pacelli & Andrea Borgarello, 2004. "Employment Protection Legislation and the Size of Firms," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 63(1), pages 33-68, April.
- Andrea Borgarello & Pietro Garibaldi & Lia Pacelli, 2003. "Employment Protection Legislation and the Size of Firms," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 23, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
- Pietro Garibaldi & Lia Pacelli & Andrea Borgarello, 2003. "Employment Protection Legislation and the Size of Firms," Working Papers 247, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Roberto Torrini, 2002.
"Cross-country differences in self-employment rates: the role of institutions,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
459, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Torrini, Roberto, 2005. "Cross-country differences in self-employment rates: the role of institutions," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 661-683, October.
- Philipp Koellinger & Christian Roessler, 2009. "Is More Entrepreneurship better?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-105/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 03 Dec 2009.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Martin Carree, 2010.
"The relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development: is it U-shaped?,"
Scales Research Reports
H200824, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Wennekers, Sander & van Stel, Andr� & Carree, Martin & Thurik, Roy, 2010. "The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Is It U-Shaped?," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 6(3), pages 167-237, July.
- Marc Cowling & Mark Taylor & Peter Mitchell, 2004. "Job Creators," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(5), pages 601-617, 09.
- Congregado, Emilio & Golpe, Antonio A. & Carmona, Mónica, 2010. "Is it a good policy to promote self-employment for job creation? Evidence from Spain," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 828-842, November.
- Hansen, Bruce E. & Seo, Byeongseon, 2002.
"Testing for two-regime threshold cointegration in vector error-correction models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 293-318, October.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS programs to replicate Hansen/Seo paper on threshold cointegration," Statistical Software Components RTZ00092, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Shin, Yongcheol, 1994. "A Residual-Based Test of the Null of Cointegration Against the Alternative of No Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 91-115, March.
- Fabiano Schivardi & Roberto Torrini, 2004. "Firm size distribution and employment protection legislation in Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 504, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Silviano Esteve).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.