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Information, Nonexcludability, and Financial Market Structure

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  • Bharat N. Anand
  • Alexander Galetovic

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Abstract

We study the determinants of market structure in financial intermediation markets. We establish that the input of intermediation services-information-is always non-excludable (though not necessarily non-rival), and intermediaries cannot establish property rights over it. We show that non-excludability is the main determinant of market structure, and present a theory in which market structure, margins, and employees' wages are endogenously determined. The models we study generate the following results: (1) Intermediaries' margins are lower in more concentrated markets. (2) There cannot exist a single dominant intermediary in equilibrium; rather, intermediaries must be few and of similar sizes. (3) Even in the absence of entry costs required to become established in the market, intermediaries may still make profits in equilibrium. (4) Increases in the size of the market may have no effect on market concentration. (5) Lower entry costs may result in more concentrated markets. (6) In intermediation markets, employees earn a wage premium unrelated to moral hazard. (7) Wages are higher in more concentrated intermediation markets, ceteris paribus. We examine in detail two markets-investment banking and venture capital- and show that the theory is consistent with the evidence.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile in its series Documentos de Trabajo with number 7.

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Date of creation: 1996
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Handle: RePEc:edj:ceauch:7

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Web page: http://www.dii.uchile.cl/cea/
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References

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  1. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  2. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1994. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," NBER Working Papers 4921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Fudenberg, Drew & Maskin, Eric, 1986. "The Folk Theorem in Repeated Games with Discounting or with Incomplete Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 533-54, May.
  4. Hendon, Ebbe & Jacobsen, Hans Jorgen & Sloth, Birgitte, 1996. "The One-Shot-Deviation Principle for Sequential Rationality," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 274-282, February.
  5. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
  6. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-400, September.
  7. Bhattacharya Sudipto & Thakor Anjan V., 1993. "Contemporary Banking Theory," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 2-50, October.
  8. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1741, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  9. George W. Fenn & Nellie Liang & Stephen Prowse, 1995. "The economics of the private equity market," Staff Studies 168, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. " Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-89, December.
  11. Hart, Oliver & Moore, John, 1994. "A Theory of Debt Based on the Inalienability of Human Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 841-79, November.
  12. von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig, 1995. "Long-Term Contracts, Short-Term Investment and Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(4), pages 557-75, October.
  13. Thakor, Anjan V, 1996. " Capital Requirements, Monetary Policy, and Aggregate Bank Lending: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 279-324, March.
  14. Bharat N. Anand & Alexander Galetovic, 2000. "Weak Property Rights and Holdup in R&D," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 615-642, December.
  15. Sanford J Grossman & Joseph E Stiglitz, 1997. "On the Impossibility of Informationally Efficient Markets," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1908, David K. Levine.
  16. Foster, F Douglas, 1989. " Syndicate Size, Spreads, and Market Power during the Introduction of Shelf Registration," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 195-204, March.
  17. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
  18. Ramakrishnan, Ram T S & Thakor, Anjan V, 1984. "Information Reliability and a Theory of Financial Intermediation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 415-32, July.
  19. Lerner, Joshua, 1994. "Venture capitalists and the decision to go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 293-316, June.
  20. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bharat N. Anand & Alexander Galetovic, 2002. "Does Competition Kill Relationships? Inside Investment Banking," Documentos de Trabajo 119, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  2. William Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 1999. "The Seven Percent Solution? An International Perspective on Underwriting Spreads," Economics Series Working Papers 1999-FE-11, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  3. Haukioja, Teemu & Hahl, Jarmo, 2001. "The Emergence of the New Economy, and its Challenge to Financial Intermediation and Banking," Discussion Papers 772, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  4. Ljungqvist, Alexander P & Nanda, Vikram & Singh, Rajdeep, 2001. "Hot Markets, Investor Sentiment and IPO Pricing," CEPR Discussion Papers 3053, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. John Asker & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2010. "Competition and the Structure of Vertical Relationships in Capital Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(3), pages 599-647, 06.
  6. Shivdasani, Anil & Song, Wei-Ling, 2010. "Breaking Down the Barriers: Competition, Syndicate Structure, and Underwriting Incentives," Working Papers 10-25, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
  7. Alexander Ljungqvist & Felicia Marston & William J. Wilhelm, 2006. "Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 301-340, 02.
  8. repec:ste:nystbu:06-23 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Bradley, Daniel & Choi, Hyung-Suk & Clarke, Jonathan, 2011. "Working for the enemy? The impact of investment banker job changes on deal flow," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 585-596, September.
  10. Bharant N. Anand & Alexander Galetovic, 2000. "Relationships, Competition, and the Structure of Investment Banking Markets," Documentos de Trabajo 96, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  11. Jos� Miguel Benavente & Alexander Galetovic & Ricardo Sanhueza, 2005. "La din�mica industrial y el financiamiento de las pyme," Documentos de Trabajo 201, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  12. Dessí, Roberta, 2009. "Contractual Execution, Strategic Incompleteness and Venture Capital," CEPR Discussion Papers 7413, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Bharat N. Anand & Alexander Galetovic, 2002. "Investment Banking and Security Market Development: Does Finance Follow Industry?," Documentos de Trabajo 121, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  14. Shivdasani, Anil & Song, Wei-Ling, 2011. "Breaking down the barriers: Competition, syndicate structure, and underwriting incentives," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(3), pages 581-600, March.
  15. Dessi, Roberta, 2009. "Contractual Execution, Strategic Incompleteness and Venture Capital," IDEI Working Papers 465, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  16. Trauten, Andreas, 2004. "Zur Effizienz von Wertpapieremissionen über Internetplattformen," Working Papers 8, Competence Center Internet Economy and Hybrid Systems, European Research Center for Information Systems (ERCIS), University of Münster.
  17. Dessi, Roberta, 2009. "Contractual Execution, Strategic Incompleteness and Venture Capital," TSE Working Papers 09-075, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).

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