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Parametric and Semi-parametric Estimations of the Return to Schooling in South Africa

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  • Sonia Bhalotra
  • Claudia Sanhueza

Abstract

This paper estimates return to schooling for african and coloured women in South Africa. It compares parametric and semiparametric estimates of the sample selection model for the case of return to schooling. The parametric estimator is the one proposed by Heckman (1979) and the semiparametric estimator proposed by Newey (1991) and Klein and Spady (1993). It also attempts to correct endogeneity and mesurement error by using instruments of schooling. Following recent literature, the paper uses community variables primary and secondary school proximity and availability as instruments. Using instrumental variables increases the return to schooling substantially. Parametric corrections does not change the results but semiparametric corrections increases the return even more

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings with number 294.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:latm04:294

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Keywords: return to schooling; sample selection bias; semiparametric regression; instrumental variables; south africa;

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  1. David Card, 1993. "Using Geographic Variation in College Proximity to Estimate the Return to Schooling," Working Papers 696, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  2. Colm Harmon & Ian Walker, 1996. "The marginal and average returns to schooling," IFS Working Papers W96/11, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 1999. "School Inputs And Educational Outcomes In South Africa," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 1047-1084, August.
  4. McKinley L. Blackburn & David Neumark, 1991. "Omitted-Ability Bias and the Increase in the Return to Schooling," NBER Working Papers 3693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 69-85, Fall.
  6. Mwabu, Germano & Schultz, T Paul, 2000. "Wage Premiums for Education and Location of South African Workers, by Gender and Race," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(2), pages 307-34, January.
  7. J.D. Angrist & Guido W. Imbens & D.B. Rubin, 1993. "Identification of Causal Effects Using Instrumental Variables," NBER Technical Working Papers 0136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 1990. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," NBER Working Papers 3572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Maria Fraga O. Martins, 2001. "Parametric and semiparametric estimation of sample selection models: an empirical application to the female labour force in Portugal," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 23-39.
  10. Butcher, Kristin F & Case, Anne, 1994. "The Effect of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Education and Earnings," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 531-63, August.
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  12. Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
  13. Card, David, 1999. "The causal effect of education on earnings," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1801-1863 Elsevier.
  14. Newey, W.K. & Powell, J.L. & Walker, J.R., 1990. "Semiparametric Estimation Of Selection Models: Some Empirical Results," Working papers 9001, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
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  18. Harmon, Colm & Walker, Ian, 1999. "The marginal and average returns to schooling in the UK," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 879-887, April.
  19. Glewwe, Paul, 1996. "The relevance of standard estimates of rates of return to schooling for education policy: A critical assessment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 267-290, December.
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  21. Harmon, Colm & Walker, Ian, 1995. "Estimates of the Economic Return to Schooling for the United Kingdom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1278-86, December.
  22. Klein, R.W. & Spady, R.H., 1991. "An Efficient Semiparametric Estimator for Binary Response Models," Papers 70, Bell Communications - Economic Research Group.
  23. Maluccio, John A., 1998. "Endogeneity of schooling in the wage function," FCND discussion papers 54, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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  25. Griliches, Zvi & Mason, William M, 1972. "Education, Income, and Ability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S74-S103, Part II, .
  26. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
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