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Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership

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  • Yohanes E. Riyanto & Linda A. Toolsema

Abstract

This paper presents a formal model of tunneling and propping in a pyramidal ownership structure. Tunneling refers to controlling shareholders shifting funds from one firm to another in the same pyramid. Propping is tunneling that is done to save the receiving firm from bankruptcy. We compare the pyramidal ownership structure to the horizontal ownership structure, in which shifting funds between firms is not possible. We show that tunneling may justify the pyramidal structure only with myopic investors or in combination with propping.

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File URL: http://repec.org/esFEAM04/up.30258.1080632625.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings with number 639.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:feam04:639

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Keywords: Tunneling; Propping; Pyramids; Ownership Structure; Business Groups;

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References

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  1. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1999. "Investor Protection and Corporate Valuation," NBER Working Papers 7403, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Kee-Hong Bae & Jun-Koo Kang & Jin-Mo Kim, 2002. "Tunneling or Value Added? Evidence from Mergers by Korean Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2695-2740, December.
  3. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
  4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1840, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  5. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-83, June.
  6. Cheung, Yan-Leung & Rau, P. Raghavendra & Stouraitis, Aris, 2006. "Tunneling, propping, and expropriation: evidence from connected party transactions in Hong Kong," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 343-386, November.
  7. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "Ferreting Out Tunneling: An Application To Indian Business Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 121-148, February.
  8. Heitor V. Almeida & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2006. "A Theory of Pyramidal Ownership and Family Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2637-2680, December.
  9. Michael L. Lemmon & Karl V. Lins, 2003. "Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firm Value: Evidence from the East Asian Financial Crisis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1445-1468, 08.
  10. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Karle, Heiko & Klein, Tobias J. & Stahl, Konrad O., 2011. "Ownership and control in a competitive industry," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-071, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Fernando Lefort & Rodrigo Gonzalez, 2011. "Holding Company Discounts and Business Groups Optimal Bailout of Subsidiaries," Working Papers 34, Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad Diego Portales.
  3. Victor Dorofeenko & Larry Lang & Klaus Ritzberger & Jamsheed Shorish, 2008. "Who controls Allianz?," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 75-103, January.
  4. Jang, Hasung & Kang, Hyung Cheol & Park, Kyung Suh, 2005. "The Choice of Group Structure: Divide and Rule," CEI Working Paper Series 2005-6, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  5. Cheung, Yan-Leung & Qi, Yuehua & Raghavendra Rau, P. & Stouraitis, Aris, 2009. "Buy high, sell low: How listed firms price asset transfers in related party transactions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 914-924, May.
  6. Dow, Sandra & McGuire, Jean, 2009. "Propping and tunneling: Empirical evidence from Japanese keiretsu," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1817-1828, October.
  7. Bhaumik, Sumon K. & Zhou, Ying, 2014. "Do Business Groups Help or Hinder Technological Progress in Emerging Markets? Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 7885, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Belot, François, 2010. "Excess control rights and corporate acquisitions," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5922, Paris Dauphine University.
  9. Anaïs Hamelin, 2010. "Is there tunneling in Small Business Groups? Evidence from French SMEs," Working Papers CEB 10-003.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  10. Kali, Raja & Sarkar, Jayati, 2011. "Diversification and tunneling: Evidence from Indian business groups," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 349-367, September.
  11. Shirley J. Ho & Hao-Chang Sung, 2012. "The Informational and Strategic Impacts of Real Earnings Management," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(2), pages 355-380, November.
  12. Sumon K. Bhaumik & Ying Zhou, 2014. "Do business groups help or hinder technological progress in emerging markets? Evidence from India," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1066, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.

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