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Youth unemployment in the OECD: demographic shifts, labour market institutions, and macroeconomic shocks

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  • Jimeno, Juan F.
  • Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

Abstract

We use a panel of OECD countries to gauge the relevance of the relative size of the youth population, labour market institutions and macroeconomic shocks at explaining observed relative youth employement rates. We find that the fluctuations of the youth population size caused by the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s and the subsequent decline of fertility in many European countries are positivily associated with fluctuations in relative youth unemployment rates. We also find that some labour market institutions contribute to increase yout unemployment, and that the adjustment to macroeconomic shocks has affected relatively more to young workers than to adult workers. To motivate the effects of institution on the relative unemployment rate of young workers, we lay out a simple theoretical model that builds on the imperfect substitutability of workers of different ages, and on the non-allocative role of (age specific) wages. JEL Classification: J64

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Paper provided by European Central Bank in its series Working Paper Series with number 0155.

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Date of creation: Jun 2002
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Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20020155

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References

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  1. Giuseppe Bertola & Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Comparative Analysis of Labor Market Outcomes: Lessons for the US from International Long-Run Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8526, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Michèle Belot & Jan C. van Ours, 2004. "Does the recent success of some OECD countries in lowering their unemployment rates lie in the clever design of their labor market reforms?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(4), pages 621-642, October.
  3. Robert Shimer, 1999. "The Impact of Young Workers on the Aggregate Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 7306, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Nickell, S. & Layard, R., 1997. "Labour Market Institutions and Economic Performance," Papers 23, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics.
  5. Claudio Lupi & Giorgio Brunello, 2001. "Beyond National Institutions: Labor Taxes and Regional Unemployment in Italy," CESifo Working Paper Series 414, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. Dolado, Juan J. & Felgueroso, Florentino & Jimeno, Juan Francisco, 2000. "Explaining Youth Labour Market Problems In Spain: Crowding-Out, Institutions, Or Technology Shifts?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2398, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Dolado, J. J. & Felgueroso, F. & Jimeno, J. F., 2001. "Female employment and occupational changes in the 1990s: How is the EU performing relative to the US?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 875-889, May.
  8. Nickell, S.J. & Ours, J.C. van, 1999. "The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A European Unemployment Miracle?," Discussion Paper 1999-119, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  9. Olivier Blanchard & Justin Wolfers, 1999. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 2000. "Cohort Crowding and Youth Labor Markets (A Cross-National Analysis)," NBER Chapters, in: Youth Employment and Joblessness in Advanced Countries, pages 57-106 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Wage Inequality, Collective Bargaining, And Relative Employment From 1985 To 1994: Evidence From Fifteen Oecd Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 564-579, November.
  12. Jimeno, Juan F. & Bentolila, Samuel, 1998. "Regional unemployment persistence (Spain, 1976-1994)," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 25-51, March.
  13. Bentolila, Samuel & Ichino, Andrea, 2000. "Unemployment and Consumption: Are Job Losses Less Painful near the Mediterranean?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2539, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Cited by:
  1. Kirsten Daniel & W. S. Siebert, 2005. "Does employment protection reduce the demand for unskilled labour?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 197-222.
  2. Caroleo Floro Ernesto & Pastore Francesco, 2009. "Le cause del(l') (in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & lavoro, Carocci editore, issue 3, pages 107.
  3. Martin Heipertz & Melanie Ward-Warmedinger, 2008. "Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 32(3), pages 255-287.
  4. Dolado, Juan J. & Jansen, Marcel & Jimeno, Juan F., 2005. "Dual Employment Protection Legislation: A Framework for Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 1564, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Christian Dustmann & Uta Schönberg, 2007. "Apprenticeship Training and Commitment to Training Provision," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0032, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  6. Giuseppe Bertola & Francine Blau & Lawrence Kahn, 2007. "Labor market institutions and demographic employment patterns," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 833-867, October.
  7. Dolado Juan & Jansen Marcel & Jimeno Serrano Juan, 2007. "A Positive Analysis of Targeted Employment Protection Legislation," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-30, July.
  8. Messina, Julián, 2004. "Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries," Working Paper Series 0320, European Central Bank.
  9. Dario Sciulli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "University-to-work transitions: the case of Perugia," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 77/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia, Finanza e Statistica.
  10. Samuel Bentolila & Juan F. Jimeno, . "Spanish Unemployment: The End of the Wild Ride?," Working Papers 2003-10, FEDEA.
  11. Kelly, Elish & McGuinness, Seamus & O'Connell, Philip J., 2011. "Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk Among Young People: Evidence from Ireland," Papers WP394, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  12. Shane Niall, OHiggins, 2006. "Still With us After all of These Years: Trends in Youth Labour Market Entry, Home-Leaving And Human Capital Accumulation in Italy 1993-2003," CELPE Discussion Papers 99, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
  13. Gilles Mourre, 2005. "Wage compression and employment in Europe: First evidence from the structure of earnings survey 2002," European Economy - Economic Papers 232, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.

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