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The Natural Interest Rate in Emerging Markets

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  • Ashima Goyal

    (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

Abstract

An optimizing model of a small open emerging market economy (SOEME) with dualistic labour markets and two types of consumers, is used to derive the natural interest rate, terms of trade and potential output. Shocks are classified into generic types that affect the natural interest rates. Since parameters depend on features of the labour market and on consumption inequality, the natural rates and the impact of shocks differ from those in a mature small open economy. Subsistence consumption is found to have the largest effect on the natural rates. It reduces the interest rate, raises natural output and the terms of trade. Technology and infrastructure backwardness reduce natural output. The implications for monetary policy are derived. The effect of managed exchange rates combined with different types of inflation targeting is examined through simulations. Endogenous terms of trade make the supply curve steeper in a SOEME, so partial stickiness of the real exchange rate can be beneficial. In general, domestic inflation targeting, with some weight on the output gap, delivers lower volatility. Output response is higher and volatility lower with fixed terms of trade, demonstrating the flatter supply curve. CPI inflation targeting also does well when terms of trade are credibly fixed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by East Asian Bureau of Economic Research in its series Macroeconomics Working Papers with number 22379.

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Date of creation: Jan 2008
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Handle: RePEc:eab:macroe:22379

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Keywords: small open emerging market; optimal monetary policy; dualistic labour markets; natural interest rates; Terms of Trade; natural output;

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  1. Clarida, R. & Gali, J. & Gertler, M., 1999. "The Science of Monetary Policy: A New Keynesian Perspective," Working Papers, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University 99-13, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  2. Reinhart, Carmen & Ogaki, Masao & Ostry, Jonathan, 1996. "Saving Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Developing Countries: A Comparison," MPRA Paper 6978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Richard Clarida & Jordi Gali & Mark Gertler, 2001. "Optimal Monetary Policy in Closed versus Open Economies: An Integrated Approach," NBER Working Papers 8604, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116, February.
  5. Ashima Goyal, 2007. "A General equilibrium open economy model for emerging markets: Monetary policy with a dualistic labor market," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2007-016, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  6. Goyal, Ashima, 2008. "Incentives from Exchange Rate Regimes in an Institutional Context," MPRA Paper 24310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Christiano, Lawrence J. & Eichenbaum, Martin & Evans, Charles L., 1999. "Monetary policy shocks: What have we learned and to what end?," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 65-148 Elsevier.
  8. Arminio Fraga & Ilan Goldfajn & André Minella, 2003. "Inflation Targeting in Emerging Market Economies," Working Papers Series, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department 76, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  9. Goyal, Ashima & Dash, Shridhar, 2000. "The Money Supply Process in India: Identification, Analysis and Estimation," MPRA Paper 24632, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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Cited by:
  1. Ashima Goyal & Sanchit Arora, 2013. "Estimating the Indian natural interest rate and evaluating policy," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2013-017, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  2. Goyal, Ashima, 2010. "Sustainable debt and deficits in emerging markets," MPRA Paper 40100, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Ashima Goyal, 2008. "The Structure of Inflation, Information and Labour Markets - Implications for monetary policy," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22378, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  4. Ashima Goyal & Shruti Tripathi, 2012. "Stability and policy rules in emerging markets," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2012-004, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  5. Ashima Goyal, 2010. "Inflationary pressures in South Asia," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 17(2), pages 1-42, December.

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