The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture
AbstractThis paper provides estimates of the costs of organic agriculture (OA) programs, and sets them in the context of the costs of attaining the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It analyzes the costs of OA programs in four case studies : Wanzai, PRC; Wuyuan, PRC; Kandy, Sri Lanka; and Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The results show considerable variation across the case studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the costs of adopting OA. Costs do depend on the efficiency with which the OA adoption programs are run. The lowest cost programs were more than ten times less expensive than the highest cost ones. A further analysis of the gains resulting from OA adoption reveals that the costs per person taken out of poverty was much lower than the World Banks estimates, based on income growth in general or based on the detailed costs of meeting some of the more quantifiable MDGs (e.g., education, health, and environment).
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by East Asian Bureau of Economic Research in its series Development Economics Working Papers with number 23015.
Date of creation: Jan 2010
Date of revision:
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organic agriculture programs; MDGs; case studies;
Other versions of this item:
- Markandya, Anil & Setboonsarng, Sununtar & Hui, Qiao Yu & Songkranok, Rachanee & Stefan, Adam, 2010. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," ADBI Working Papers, Asian Development Bank Institute 193, Asian Development Bank Institute.
- Anil Markandya & Sununtar Setboonsarng & Qiao Yu Hui & Adam Stefan, 2011. "The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture," Working Papers, eSocialSciences id:4395, eSocialSciences.
- Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
- Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Devarajan, Shantayanan & Miller, Margaret J. & Swanson, Eric V., 2002. "Goals for development : history, prospects and costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 2819, The World Bank.
- Bourguignon, Francois & Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina & Lofgren, Hans, 2008. "Aid, service delivery, and the millennium development goals in an economy-wide framework," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 4683, The World Bank.
- R. Quentin Grafton, 2007. "Economic Development & Environmental Sustainability: New Policy Options - Edited by Ramón López and Michael A. Toman," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(262), pages 347-349, 09.
- World Bank & International Monetary Fund, 2008. "Global Monitoring Report 2008 : MDGs and the Environment, Agenda for Inclusive and Sustainable Development," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, The World Bank, number 6518, February.
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