Green havens and pollution havens
AbstractWe test for pollution haven effects in outward foreign direct investment (FDI) for different sectors using a comprehensive and exhaustive dataset for outward FDI from the Netherlands, one of the most environmentally stringent countries and a major source of global FDI. Our evidence suggests that in the sectors natural resources extraction and refining, construction, retail, food processing, beverages and tobacco, and utilities, a less stringent environmental policy in the host country significantly attracts FDI. What is important for these pollution haven effects is not only regulation but also enforcement of environmental policy. In contrast to earlier results, it is not only footloose industries that display pollution haven effects, but also the traditional pollution-intensive industries. But for the sectors machines, electronics and automotive and transportation and communication a more stringent and better enforced environmental policy attracts more FDI as this may help their reputation for sustainable management and CSR. These sectors display green haven effects. These findings have important implications for the sector distribution of FDI in destination countries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department in its series DNB Working Papers with number 353.
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision:
pollution haven; green haven; FDI; environmental policy; regulation; enforcement; strategic effects; footloose industries; CSR;
Other versions of this item:
- Steven Poelhekke & Frederick van der Ploeg, 2012. "Green Havens and Pollution Havens," OxCarre Working Papers 087, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
- Steven Poelhekke & Rick Van der Ploeg, 2012. "Green Havens and Pollution Havens," CESifo Working Paper Series 3841, CESifo Group Munich.
- F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-11-11 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2012-11-11 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2012-11-11 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-RES-2012-11-11 (Resource Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies & Glen R. Waddell & Helen T. Naughton, 2004.
"FDI in Space: Spatial Autoregressive Relationships in Foreign Direct Investment,"
NBER Working Papers
10939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blonigen, Bruce A. & Davies, Ronald B. & Waddell, Glen R. & Naughton, Helen T., 2007. "FDI in space: Spatial autoregressive relationships in foreign direct investment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 1303-1325, July.
- Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2003.
"Trade, Growth and the Environment,"
NBER Working Papers
9823, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonah B. Gelbach & Doug Miller, 2009.
"Robust Inference with Multi-way Clustering,"
99, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach & Douglas L. Miller & Doug Miller, 2009. "Robust Inference with Multi-way Clustering," Working Papers 98, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach & Douglas L. Miller, 2006. "Robust Inference with Multi-way Clustering," NBER Technical Working Papers 0327, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kahn Matthew E & Yoshino Yutaka, 2004. "Testing for Pollution Havens Inside and Outside of Regional Trading Blocs," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(2), pages 1-32, October.
- Kellenberg, Derek K., 2009. "An empirical investigation of the pollution haven effect with strategic environment and trade policy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 242-255, July.
- Poelhekke, Steven & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 2010.
"Do Natural Resources Attract FDI? Evidence from Non-Stationary Sector-Level Data,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
8079, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Steven Poelhekke & Frederick van der Ploeg, 2010. "Do Natural Resources Attract FDI? Evidence from non-stationary sector level data," DNB Working Papers 266, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Josh Ederington & Arik Levinson & Jenny Minier, 2003.
"Footloose and Pollution-Free,"
NBER Working Papers
9718, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arik Levinson & M. Scott Taylor, 2004.
"Unmasking the Pollution Haven Effect,"
NBER Working Papers
10629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 1997.
"Moving to greener pastures : multinationals and the pollution-haven hypothesis,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1744, The World Bank.
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 2003. "Moving to greener pastures? Multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-23, February.
- Gunnar A. Eskeland & Ann E. Harrison, 2002. "Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 8888, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Romain Wacziarg & Karen Horn Welch, 2008.
"Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 187-231, June.
- Romain Wacziarg & Karen Horn Welch, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence," NBER Working Papers 10152, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wacziarg, Romain & Welch, Karen Horn, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence," Research Papers 1826, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Josh Ederington & Jenny Minier, 2000.
"Is Environmental Policy a Secondary Trade Barrier? An Empirical Analysis,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
1507, Econometric Society.
- Josh Ederington & Jenny Minier, 2003. "Is environmental policy a secondary trade barrier? An empirical analysis," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(1), pages 137-154, February.
- World Bank, 2011. "The Changing Wealth of Nations : Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2252, January.
- Fredriksson, Per G. & List, John A. & Millimet, Daniel L., 2003. "Bureaucratic corruption, environmental policy and inbound US FDI: theory and evidence," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(7-8), pages 1407-1430, August.
- Ulrich Wagner & Christopher Timmins, 2009.
"Agglomeration Effects in Foreign Direct Investment and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 43(2), pages 231-256, June.
- Ulrich J. Wagner & Christopher Timmins, 2010. "Agglomeration Effects in Foreign Direct Investment and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis," Working Papers 10-05, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Randy Becker & Vernon Henderson, 2000. "Effects of Air Quality Regulations on Polluting Industries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 379-421, April.
- Bruce Blonigen, 2005.
"A Review of the Empirical Literature on FDI Determinants,"
Atlantic Economic Journal,
International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 33(4), pages 383-403, December.
- Bruce A. Blonigen, 2005. "A Review of the Empirical Literature on FDI Determinants," NBER Working Papers 11299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Steven Poelhekke & Frederick van der Ploeg, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment And Urban Concentrations: Unbundling Spatial Lags," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(4), pages 749-775.
- Florax, Raymond J. G. M. & Folmer, Hendrik & Rey, Sergio J., 2003.
"Specification searches in spatial econometrics: the relevance of Hendry's methodology,"
Regional Science and Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 557-579, September.
- Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Hendrik Folmer & Sergio J. Rey, 2002. "Specification Searches in Spatial Econometrics: The Relevance of Hendry's Methodology," Urban/Regional 0202001, EconWPA.
- List, John A. & Co, Catherine Y., 2000. "The Effects of Environmental Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-20, July.
- Wolfgang Keller & Arik Levinson, 2002. "Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 691-703, November.
- Markus Kitzmueller & Jay Shimshack, 2012. "Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(1), pages 51-84, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rob Vet).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.