What Triggers Early Retirement? Results from Swiss Pension Funds
AbstractEarly retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men, and - to a much smaller extent - women, tend to leave the work force earlier. The fact that early retirement has become much more prevalent in the last 15 years is another indicator for the importance of affordability as Switzerland's funded pension system has matured over that period leading to higher effective replacement rates. We also find sizeable differences in retirement behavior across marital status. These may be explained by a constrained rational choice based on differential mortality and the desire of couples to coordinate their entry into retirement. Jel-Classification: D91, H55
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department in its series DNB Working Papers with number 041.
Date of creation: May 2005
Date of revision:
Occupational Pension; Retirement decision; Duration models;
Other versions of this item:
- Monika Bütler & Olivia Huguenin & Federica Teppa, 2004. "What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds," CeRP Working Papers 35, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
- Monika BÜTLER & Olivia HUGUENIN & Federica TEPPA, 2004. "What Triggers Early Retirement ? Results from Swiss Pension Funds," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du DÃ©partement d'EconomÃ©trie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 04.04, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Bütler, Monika & Huguenin, Olivia & Teppa, Federica, 2004. "What Triggers Early Retirement? Results from Swiss Pension Funds," CEPR Discussion Papers 4394, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- D91 - Microeconomics - - Intertemporal Choice - - - Intertemporal Household Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
- H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2005-06-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-DGE-2005-06-05 (Dynamic General Equilibrium)
- NEP-PBE-2005-06-05 (Public Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bingley, Paul & Lanot, Gauthier, 2004. "Employer pay policies, public transfers and the retirement decisions of men and women in Denmark," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 181-200, February.
- Stock, James H & Wise, David A, 1990.
"Pensions, the Option Value of Work, and Retirement,"
Econometric Society, vol. 58(5), pages 1151-80, September.
- James H. Stock & David A. Wise, 1988. "Pensions, The Option Value of Work, and Retirement," NBER Working Papers 2686, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stock, J.H. & Wise, D.A., 1988. "Pensions, The Option Value Of Work, And Retirement," Working Papers e-88-28, Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
- Zweimuller, Josef & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Falkinger, Josef, 1996.
"Retirement of spouses and social security reform,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 449-472, February.
- Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1979. "Social Security and Equilibrium Capital Intensity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 233-53, May.
- Nicole Maestas, 2004. "Back to Work: Expectations and Realizations of Work After Retirement," Working Papers wp085, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
- Alan L. Gustman & Thomas L. Steinmeier, 1994. "Retirement in a Family Context: A Structural Model for Husbands and Wives," NBER Working Papers 4629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:cup:etheor:v:13:y:1997:i:3:p:392-405 is not listed on IDEAS
- Burtless, Gary, 1986. "Social Security, Unanticipated Benefit Increases, and the Timing of Retirement," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(5), pages 781-805, October.
- Blau, David M, 1998. "Labor Force Dynamics of Older Married Couples," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(3), pages 595-629, July.
- Stern, Steven, 1997. "Approximate Solutions to Stochastic Dynamic Programs," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(03), pages 392-405, June.
- Mauro Mastrogiacomo & Rob Alessie & Maarten Lindeboom, 2002. "Retirement Behaviour of Dutch Elderly Households: Diversity in Retirement Patterns across Different Household Types," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-073/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Burtless, Gary & Hausman, Jerry A, 1978.
"The Effect of Taxation on Labor Supply: Evaluating the Gary Negative Income Tax Experiments,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 1103-30, December.
- G. Burtless & J. A. Hausman, 1977. "The Effect of Taxation on Labor Supply: Evaluating the Gary Negative Income Tax Experiment," Working papers 211, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Jiménez-Martín, Sergi & Labeaga, José M. & Martínez Granado, Maite, 1999. "Health status and retirement decisions for older European couples," IRISS Working Paper Series 1999-01, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Butler, Monika & Teppa, Federica, 2007.
"The choice between an annuity and a lump sum: Results from Swiss pension funds,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 91(10), pages 1944-1966, November.
- Monika Bütler & Federica Teppa, 2007. "The choice between an annuity and a lump sum: Results from Swiss pension funds," NBER Chapters, in: Trans-Atlantic Public Economics Seminar (TAPES), Public Policy and Retirement, pages 1944-1966 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mark Y. An & Bent Jesper Christensen & Nabanita Datta Gupta, 2004. "Multivariate mixed proportional hazard modelling of the joint retirement of married couples," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(6), pages 687-704.
- Samuelson, Paul A, 1975. "Optimum Social Security in a Life-Cycle Growth Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 16(3), pages 539-44, October.
- Queisser, Monika & Vittas, Dimitri, 2000. "The Swiss multi-pillar pension system : triumph of common sense?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2416, The World Bank.
- Craig, Ben & Batina, Raymond G., 1991. "The effects of social security in a life cycle family labor supply simulation model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 199-226, November.
- Samwick, Andrew A., 1998.
"Discount rate heterogeneity and social security reform,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 117-146, October.
- Andrew A. Samwick, 1997. "Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform," NBER Working Papers 6219, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thaler, Richard, 1981. "Some empirical evidence on dynamic inconsistency," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 201-207.
- Diamond, P. A. & Hausman, J. A., 1984. "Individual retirement and savings behavior," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1-2), pages 81-114.
- Hausman, Jerry A & Wise, David A, 1980. "Discontinuous Budget Constraints and Estimation: The Demand for Housing," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 75-96, January.
- Butler, Monika & Ruesch, Martin, 2007. "Annuities in Switzerland," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4438, The World Bank.
- Hu, Sheng Cheng, 1979. "Social Security, the Supply of Labor, and Capital Accumulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 274-83, June.
- Michael D. Hurd, 1990.
"The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives,"
in: Issues in the Economics of Aging, pages 231-258
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael D. Hurd, 1988. "The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives," NBER Working Papers 2803, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Crawford, Vincent P & Lilien, David M, 1981. "Social Security and the Retirement Decision," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 96(3), pages 505-29, August.
- Dorn, David & Sousa-Poza, Alfonso, 2007.
"'Voluntary' and 'Involuntary' Early Retirement: An International Analysis,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2714, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- David Dorn & Alfonso Sousa-Poza, 2010. "'Voluntary' and 'involuntary' early retirement: an international analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 427-438.
- Monika Bütler & Stefan Staubli & Maria Grazia Zito, 2008.
"The Role of the Annuity’s Value on the Decision (Not) to Annuitize: Evidence from a Large Policy Change,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
2376, CESifo Group Munich.
- Bütler, Monika & Staubli, Stefan & Zito, Maria Grazia, 2008. "The Role of the Annuity's Value on the Decision (Not) to Annuitize: Evidence from a Large Policy Change," CEPR Discussion Papers 6930, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Monika Bütler, 2010. "The Role of the Annuity’s Value on the Decision (Not) to Annuitize: Evidence from a Large Policy Change," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2010 2010-05, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
- Monika Riedel & Helmut Hofer, 2013. "Determinants of the Transition from Work into Retirement," NRN working papers 2013-10, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- repec:ner:leuven:urn:hdl:123456789/408536 is not listed on IDEAS
- Estelle James & Alejandra Cox Edwards, 2005. "Do Individual Accounts Postpone Retirement: Evidence from Chile," Working Papers wp098, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
- Daniel Hallberg & Matias Eklöf, 2010. "Do buy-outs of older workers matter?: Estimating retirement behavior with special early retirement offers," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(3), pages 337-359, July.
- Piekkola, Hannu & Deschryvere, Matthias, 2004. "Retirement Decisions and Option Values: Their Application Regarding Finland," Discussion Papers 951, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
- Marjan, MAES, 2008. "Financial and redistributive impact of reforming the old-age pension system in Belgium," Discussion Papers (ECON - DÃ©partement des Sciences Economiques) 2008040, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rob Vet).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.