Green, Brown, and Now White Certificates: Are Three One Too Many? A Micromodel of Market Interaction
AbstractOur paper deals with modeling the effects of introducing a market-based tool for improving end-users' efficiency in an energy market which is already regulated through a cap-and-trade system for green house gas emissions and a quota system meant to improve competitiveness of energy produced using renewable resources. Our results show that the regulation of energy demand achieves its underlying objects of energy savings and energy efficiency solely at the expense of other goals such as the environmental efficiency of energy production. In our model, the implementation of a market for White Certificates (WCTS) causes energy producers' investment in abatement to decrease along with the price for Brown Certificates and the amount of renewable energy demanded. Once we turn to the currently more empirically relevant case of integrating end-users only partially into WCTS, the unregulated group compensates in parts for the decrease in demand of the regulated group, due to an indirect price effect. As both supply and demand side of the market are regulated, this special set of regulations applied can, therefore, be compared to the grip of pincers embracing the entire market, leaving some of it virtually scarred. Consequently, we intended to search for alternative policy measures, which are able to achieve an increase in end-users' energy efficiency without the negative side-effects witnessed in case of a WCTS. In our model a subsidized reduction in the price for households' investment in energy efficiency renders just slightly more favorable results than an implementation of WCTS. However, the most effective way to accomplish all goals of environmental policy alike is to reduce the cap on emissions.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 809.
Length: 19 p.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Energy markets; certificate trading scheme; white certificates; efficiency; regulation; market-based tool; pincers policy;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-08-21 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2008-08-21 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2008-08-21 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-REG-2008-08-21 (Regulation)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Amundsen, E.S. & Mortensen, J.B., 2001. "The Danish Green Certificate System: Some Simple Analytical Results," Norway; Department of Economics, University of Bergen 226, Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
- Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
- Ole Langniss & Barbara Praetorius, 2004. "How Much Market Do Market-Based Instruments Create?: An Analysis for the Case of ¿White¿ Certificates," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 425, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Amundsen, Eirik S. & Mortensen, Jorgen Birk, 2001. "The Danish Green Certificate System: some simple analytical results," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 489-509, September.
- Steven Sorrell, 2003. "Carbon Trading in the Policy Mix," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 420-437.
- Philippe Quirion, 2006. "Distributional Impacts of Energy-Efficiency Certificates Vs. Taxes and Standards," Working Papers 2006.18, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- V., Oikonomou & A., Flamos & S., Grafakos, 2010. "Is blending of energy and climate policy instruments always desirable?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4186-4195, August.
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