Top down or Bottom Up? A Cross-National Study of Vertical Occupational Sex Segregation in Twelve European Countries
AbstractStarting with a comparative assessment of different welfare regimes and political economies from the perspective of gender awareness and "pro-women" policies, this paper identifies the determinants of cross-national variation in women's chances of being in a high-status occupation in twelve West European countries. Special emphasis is given to size and structure of the service sector, including share of women in public employment and structural factors such as trade union density and employment protection. The first level of comparison between men and women concentrates on gender representation in the higher echelons of the job hierarchy, while in the second section we extend the scope of analysis, comparing women in high-status occupations and low-wage employment in order to allow for a more nuanced study of gender and class interaction. The first analysis is based on European Social Survey data for the years 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008, capturing recent trends in occupational dynamics. Results indicate that in general a large service sector and a high trade union density enhance women's chances of being in high-status occupations while more specifically a large public sector helps to reduce channeling women into low-wage employment. Thus, equality at the top can well be paired with inequality at the bottom, as postindustrial countries with a highly polarized occupational hierarchy such as the UK show.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 1183.
Length: 47 p.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
occupational sex segregation; gender equality; public sector employment; cross-national comparison;
Other versions of this item:
- Schäfer, Andrea & Tucci, Ingrid & Gottschall, Karin, 2011. "Top down or bottom up? A cross-national study of vertical occupational sex segregation in twelve European Countries," Working papers of the ZeS 04/2011, University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS).
- P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems
- D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
- J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-02-20 (All new papers)
- NEP-EUR-2012-02-20 (Microeconomic European Issues)
- NEP-LAB-2012-02-20 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Christofides, Louis N. & Polycarpou, Alexandros & Vrachimis, Konstantinos, 2010. "The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union," IZA Discussion Papers 5044, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Hall, Peter A. & Soskice, David (ed.), 2001. "Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199247752.
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