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Soziale Ungleichheiten beim Schulstart: empirische Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung der sozialen Herkunft und des Kindergartenbesuchs auf den Zeitpunkt der Einschulung

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  • Jens Kratzmann
  • Thorsten Schneider
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    Abstract

    Although in Germany, there is a regular age of school entry, some children start school later than usual and some children start ahead of schedule. While there has been some decrease in delayed school entries in the last years, the rate of premature school entry has increased substantially. Paradoxically, while the delayed entry is primarily because professionals rate a child as not ready for school, the premature entry is mainly based on parents' choice. The first aim of the paper is to discover whether kindergarten attendance can reduce the risk of a delayed entry. The arguments and hypotheses are mainly based on the theory on the ecology of human development of Bronfenbrenner. The empirical analyses demonstrate that low educated families profit most by kindergarten attendance, but only if the child begins attending the care institution before reaching age four. The second aim concerns theoretical and empirical considerations in regard to the decision of prematurely entering school. Therefore, we apply common sociological models on educational choice to the situation of school entry. Socio-economic conditions are not as important at this point as compared with a delay in school entry. However, there are some income effects indicating that higher income parents try to avoid further payments for kindergarten by fostering a premature entry to elementary schools, which is free of fees. The analyses are based on over 1.400 children in the relevant age group and their parents taking part in the large nationwide German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). Aus dem ökosystemischen Ansatz von Bronfenbrenner lässt sich ableiten, dass der Kindergarten entwicklungsfördernd ist, und zwar insbesondere bei Kindern aus bildungsfernen Haushalten. Deshalb gehen wir der Frage nach, in wieweit ein früher Eintritt in den Kindergarten das Risiko der Rückstellung bei der Einschulung reduziert. Auch werden vorzeitige Einschulungen untersucht, da sie in den letzten Jahren stark an Bedeutung gewonnen haben. Im Gegensatz zu den eher institutionell veranlassten Rückstellungen handelt es sich bei der vorzeitigen Einschulung um Entscheidungen der Eltern. Deshalb wenden wir das Modell der Bildungswahl auf diese Situation an. Die empirischen Analysen basieren auf Daten des SOEP der Jahre 1995-2004 und stützten die Annahmen zur kompensatorischen Wirkung eines Kindergartenbesuchs, denn bei Kindern aus bildungsfernen Haushalten reduziert ein frühzeitiger Eintritt in den Kindergarten das Risiko einer späteren Rückstellung vom Schulbesuch. Auch wenn die Befunde zur vorzeitigen Einschulung weniger eindeutig ausfallen, so geben sie zumindest Hinweise darauf, dass insbesondere einkommensstarke Eltern ihre Kinder vorzeitig einschulen und damit auf ein weiteres Jahr im gebührenpflichtigen Kindergarten verzichten.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 100.

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    Length: 36 p.
    Date of creation: 2008
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp100

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