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Le marché du travail en Haïti après le séisme : quelle place pour les jeunes ?

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Author Info

  • François Roubaud

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Constance Torelli

    ()
    (INSEE, UMR DIAL)

  • Claire Zanuso

    ()
    (PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, UMR DIAL)

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    Abstract

    (english) In January 2010, Haiti has been hit by the worst earthquake in its dramatic history. It was followed by an unprecedented international mobilization. Since then, a succession of natural disasters has struck the country (floods, epidemics, etc.). At the commemoration of the fourth anniversary of the seism, we examine the place and the role played by the Youth in this context of exception. This paper focuses on the insertion of the Youth on the labour market. Labour markets are the transmission belt between the macroeconomic dynamics and household living conditions, as the job earnings constitute the main households resources in developing countries, especially the poor. The thorough analysis of their situation is guided by a key thread: have they been spared, compared to their elders, whether through family solidarity or through international assistance; or conversely, have the Youth been sacrificed as the generational "weak link". Our analysis is based on the first socioeconomic survey post-earthquake. Conducted at the national level the last quarter of 2012 by the National Statistics Office of Haiti with the scientific support of the authors, the results are available for the first time. To study the dynamics, they are compared with those from a comparable survey conducted in 2007 by the same partners. Our results show that young people, and those from disadvantaged social origin in the first place, were the main victims of the downward adjustment caused by the earthquake. The sharp deterioration of their labour market conditions is not only iniquitous but it also compromises the development of Haiti in the medium term. _________________________________ (français) En janvier 2010, Haïti était touché par le plus terrible tremblement de terre de son histoire tourmentée, suivi d’une mobilisation internationale sans précédent. Depuis lors, une succession de catastrophes naturelles se sont abattues sur le pays (inondations, épidémies, etc.). A l'heure de la commémoration du 4ème anniversaire du séisme, nous nous interrogerons sur la place et le rôle joués par les jeunes dans ce contexte d'exception. L'accent porte sur l'insertion de ces derniers sur le marché du travail, étant entendu que l'emploi est de loin la principale source de revenu des populations, permettant en particulier la survie des plus pauvres. La description fouillée de leur situation sera guidée par un fil rouge : les jeunes ont-ils été épargnés, relativement à leurs aînés, que ce soit grâce aux solidarités familiales ou via l'aide internationale, ou au contraire, ont-ils été sacrifiés en tant que "maillon faible" générationnel. Pour étayer nos analyses, nous mobiliserons la première enquête socio-économique post-séisme à couverture nationale, réalisée fin 2012 par l'Institut Haïtien de Statistique avec l'appui scientifique des auteurs, et dont les résultats sont encore inédits. Pour étudier la dynamique, ces derniers seront confrontés à ceux issus d'une enquête similaire conduite en 2007 par les mêmes partenaires. Nos résultats montrent que les jeunes, et ceux d'origine modeste au premier chef, ont été les principales victimes de l'ajustement à la baisse provoqué par le séisme. La dégradation brutale du sort qui leur est fait est non seulement inique mais elle comprend le développement d’Haïti à moyen terme.

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    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2014/2014-03
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2014/03.

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    Length: 23 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2014
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201403

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    Keywords: Labour market; natural disasters; Youth; Haiti; inequality; social origin; Marché du travail; Catastrophes naturelles; Jeunes; Haïti; Inégalités; origine sociale..;

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    References

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    1. Justesen, Michael & Verner, Dorte, 2007. "Factors impacting youth development in Haiti," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4110, The World Bank.
    2. Skoufias, Emmanuel, 2003. "Economic Crises and Natural Disasters: Coping Strategies and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1087-1102, July.
    3. Wachsberger, Jean-Michel & Roubaud, François & Razafindrakoto, Mireille, 2012. "Travailler dans le secteur informel : choix ou contrainte ? Une analyse de la satisfaction dans l'emploi au Vietnam," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/11229, Paris Dauphine University.
    4. Eduardo Cavallo & Ilan Noy, 2009. "The Economics of Natural Disasters - A Survey," Working Papers 200919, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    5. Valerie Mueller & Daniel Osgood, 2009. "Long-term Impacts of Droughts on Labour Markets in Developing Countries: Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(10), pages 1651-1662.
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