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Les enfants non scolarisés en milieu urbain : une comparaison des déterminants intra familiaux, inter familiaux et des effets de voisinage dans sept capitales ouest africaines

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  • Marie-Hélène Durand

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    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

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    Abstract

    (english) This cross-country study examines the determinants of school attendance through household surveys conducted the same year in seven West African countries. The aim of this comparison, based on the relatively homogeneous population of urban households living in the capitals, is to look at national differences. We used a tree-level logit model allowing to decompose the unobserved heterogeneity between a within family effect, a between families effect and a neighbourhood effect. The results show that the generalized pattern that explains the out of schooling for all these countries is the discrimination within the family towards some children, namely girls. Although this study has been based on comparable populations with similar rates of schooling the disparities in the impact of household characteristics on child schooling among the countries highlight the importance of the economical and cultural context. Children living in the poorest households are less likely to go to school except for great size families, which seems to indicate different types of family behaviour to cope with limited resources. Large households in Dakar tend to treat their children in a more egalitarian way regarding school attendance but their well being depends on the family income. On the contrary in Cotonou where families are of small size, children of very poor families have the same probability to go to school as wealthier ones and it is above all due to discrimination between children within the family that some of them do not attend school. _________________________________ (français) Cette étude analyse les déterminants de la non-scolarisation des enfants à partir d’enquêtes ménage réalisées la même année dans sept pays francophones ouest africains. La comparaison, restreinte à la population relativement homogène des ménages urbains de la capitale, a pour objectif d’évaluer l’existence de dissimilarités nationales. Nous utilisons un modèle hiérarchique à composantes inobservables permettant de décomposer l’hétérogénéité inobservée entre un effet de discrimination individuelle à l’égard de certains enfants au sein des familles, un effet de demande d’éducation de la part des familles et un effet de voisinage relevant soit de phénomènes d’interactions sociales ou de déficience des infrastructures dans le quartier de résidence des familles. Pour l’ensemble des pays, les résultats montrent que c’est surtout la discrimination à l’encontre de certains enfants au sein de la famille, essentiellement les filles, qui explique l’exclusion de l’école. Bien que cette étude ait été réalisée sur des populations comparables avec des taux de scolarisation moyens assez similaires, il existe entre les différentes capitales une certaine disparité des déterminismes familiaux de la scolarisation des enfants montrant l’importance du contexte économique ou culturel plus général. Les impacts de la pauvreté et de la taille des familles sont alternatifs et semblent relever de deux modes de gestion des contraintes de ressources de la part des familles. Les enfants qui vivent au sein de familles dakaroises sont traités de façon plus égalitaire qu’ailleurs mais leur bien-être est aussi plus qu’ailleurs sensible au revenu de ces familles. Par contre à Cotonou, c’est essentiellement en raison de discriminations qu’une partie des enfants n’est pas scolarisée.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2006/02.

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    Length: 41 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2006
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200602

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    Related research

    Keywords: School attendance; household survey; West Africa; random coefficient models; Scolarisation; enquêtes ménage; Afrique de l’Ouest; Modèle à coefficients aléatoires.;

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    Cited by:
    1. BOUARÉ Issa & KONE Felix Yagoua & KUEPIE Mathias & SIDIBE Lassine, 2012. "Les déterminants de la fréquentation scolaire au Mali : Entre caractéristiques socioculturelles et économiques et statut de l'enfant dans le ménage," CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper Series 2012-41, CEPS/INSTEAD.

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