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Perception de l’inégalité des chances et mobilités objective et subjective:une analyse à partir d’entretiens qualitatifs auprès de Liméniens

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  • Laure Pasquier-Doumer

    ()
    (DIAL, IEP-Paris)

Abstract

(English) The object of this paper is to understand how the perception by Limenians of inequalities of opportunity is formed in Peru, based on qualitative interviews realized by the author. The paper aims to contribute to the normative debate on social justice; as according to several authors, the perception of inequality of opportunity strongly determines the demand for redistribution. A special focus is put to the analysis of the role played by individual mobility in the formation of this perception, by measuring this mobility from both objective and subjective indicators. The first part is dedicated to a survey of literature. The second part analyses the gap between objective and subjective mobility (the interviewees have explained the criteria they use to assess their situation compared to the one of their parents). The majority of interviewees assess their mobility using a monetary criterion. In the third part, the perception of inequality of opportunity is defined from the interviewees’ answers to an open question on the factors they consider the most important to success in their life. The answers underline the difficulty to breakdown effort and circumstances. _________________________________ (français) L’objet de cet article est de comprendre comment se forme la perception des Liméniens de l’inégalité des chances au Pérou, à partir d’entretiens qualitatifs que j’ai réalisés. Il s’agit d’apporter une contribution au débat normatif sur la justice sociale, puisque selon plusieurs auteurs, la perception de l’inégalité des chances détermine fortement la demande de redistribution. J’analyse en particulier le rôle joué par la mobilité individuelle dans la formation de cette perception, en mesurant la mobilité à partir d’indicateurs objectifs mais également subjectif. Après une première partie de ce travail consacrée à une revue de littérature, la deuxième partie analyse les écarts entre les mobilités objective et subjective (les personnes interviewées ont explicité les critères à partir desquels elles évaluent leur situation en comparaison de celle de leurs parents). La majorité des interviewés évaluent leur mobilité à partir d’un critère monétaire. Dans la troisième partie, la perception de l’inégalité des chances est définie à partir des réponses des interviewés à une question ouverte sur les facteurs qui leur semblent être les plus importants pour réussir dans la vie. Les réponses mettent en évidence la difficulté à séparer les notions d’effort et de circonstances.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2005/17.

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Length: 55 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200517

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Keywords: : Inequality of opportunity; mobility; efforts; circumstances; Peru; Inégalité des chances; mobilité; efforts; circonstances; Perou.;

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References

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  1. Alberto Alesina & Rafael Di Tella & Robert MacCulloch, 2001. "Inequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1938, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  2. Bernard M. S. van Praag & P. Frijters & Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2001. "The Anatomy of Subjective Well-Being," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 265, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Hugo Nopo & Jaime Saavedra & Maximo Torero, 2004. "Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 0405, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
  4. Ernst Fehr & Simon Gaechter, 2000. "Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity," CESifo Working Paper Series 336, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Claudia Senik, 2005. "Income distribution and well-being: what can we learn from subjective data?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 43-63, 02.
  6. Zimmerman, David J, 1992. "Regression toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 409-29, June.
  7. Piketty, Thomas, 1995. "Social Mobility and Redistributive Politics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 551-84, August.
  8. Meltzer, Allan H & Richard, Scott F, 1981. "A Rational Theory of the Size of Government," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 914-27, October.
  9. Piketty, Thomas, 1996. "Mobilité économique et attitudes politiques face à la redistribution," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9603, CEPREMAP.
  10. Corneo, Giacomo & Gruner, Hans Peter, 2002. "Individual preferences for political redistribution," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 83-107, January.
  11. Alberto Alesina & Eliana La Ferrara, . "Preferences for Redistribution in the Land of Opportunities," Working Papers 178, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
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Cited by:
  1. Pasquier-Doumer, Laure, 2009. "Reducing Inequality of Opportunities in the West African Urban Labour Markets: What Kind of Policy Matters?," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/11239, Paris Dauphine University.

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