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L'impact des infrastructures publiques sur la compétitivité et la croissance : une analyse en EGC appliquée au Sénégal

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  • Jean-Christophe Dumont

    ()
    (OCDE, DIAL)

  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

Abstract

This paper analyses the impact of public infrastructure on the competitiveness and growth of the Senegalese economy within the framework of a computable general equilibrium model. Latreille and Varoudakis (1996) demonstrated, in partial equilibrium, that the absence of competitiveness within Senegal’s economic sectors is attributable to a weakness in the gains of productivity, which itself is due to the decrease in the rate of public investment. This paper examines the extent to which an increase in public infrastructure will improve the commercial performance, as well as the growth of the Senegalese economy. First, in a static general equilibrium framework, we expose the theoretical mechanisms put into play when there is an increase in total productivity of factors of production, assuming that the variation in the TFP comes from an increase in public spending. This allows interactions between the variations in public spending and the real exchange rate to be captured. The second section presents a computable general equilibrium model applied to Senegal and the results of the simulations. We show how the effects on commercial performance of manufacturing sectors of a policy of expansion of public infrastructure can differ according to its effect on the level of domestic prices and the wage rate. Furthermore, the choice of the method of financing of an extensive budgetary policy is important because it is through this bias that the effects on the level of domestic prices can be controlled. Owing to this, an approach in terms of a computable general equilibrium, based on relevant sectorial estimations is preferable to more classical studies in partial equilibrium. _________________________________ Ce papier analyse l’impact des infrastructures publiques sur la compétitivité et la croissance de l’économie sénégalaise dans le cadre d’un modèle d’équilibre général calculable. En effet, Latreille et Varoudakis (1996) ont montré, en équilibre partiel, que le manque de compétitivité des secteurs économiques sénégalais est imputable à une faiblesse des gains de productivité, elle-même due notamment à la baisse du rythme des investissements publics. Il apparaît intéressant de voir dans quelle mesure un accroissement des infrastructures publiques permet des meilleures performances commerciales de l’économie sénégalaise ainsi que de la croissance. Dans un premier temps, les mécanismes théoriques mis en jeu lors d'un accroissement de la productivité totale des facteurs de production sont exposés dans un cadre d'équilibre général statique, en admettant que la variation de la PTF provient d'un accroissement des dépenses publiques. Cela permet d'appréhender les interactions entre les variations de la dépense publique et celles du taux de change réel. La seconde section présente le modèle d’équilibre général calculable dynamique appliqué au Sénégal et les résultats de simulations. On montre combien les effets d'une politique d'expansion des infrastructures publiques sur les performances commerciales des secteurs manufacturiers peuvent se différencier selon son impact sur le niveau des prix domestiques et le taux de salaire. En outre, le choix du mode de financement d'une politique budgétaire extensive est primordial dans la mesure où c'est par ce biais que les effets sur le niveau des prix domestiques peuvent être maîtrisés. En ce sens une approche en terme d'équilibre général calculable, appuyée sur des estimations sectorielles pertinentes se montre préférable aux études plus classiques en équilibre partiel.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2000/08.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200008

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  1. Aschauer, David Alan, 1989. "Does public capital crowd out private capital?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 171-188, September.
  2. Devarajan, Shantayanan & de Melo, Jaime, 1987. "Adjustment with a Fixed Exchange Rate: Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, and Senegal," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(3), pages 447-87, May.
  3. David Aschauer, 1988. "Is public expenditure productive?," Staff Memoranda 88-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  4. Mario I. Blejer & Mohsin S. Khan, 1984. "Government Policy and Private Investment in Developing Countries (Politique des pouvoirs publics et investissement privé dans les pays en développement) (Política estatal e inversión priva," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(2), pages 379-403, June.
  5. Barro, Robert J, 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S103-26, October.
  6. Feltenstein, Andrew & Ha, Jiming, 1999. "An analysis of the optimal provision of public infrastructure: a computational model using Mexican data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 219-230, February.
  7. Kessides, C., 1993. "The Contributions of Infrastructure to Economic Development, A review of Experience and Policy Implications," World Bank - Discussion Papers 213, World Bank.
  8. Thierry Latreille & Aristomène Varoudakis, 1996. "Croissance et compétitivité de l'industrie manufacturière au Sénégal," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 118, OECD Publishing.
  9. Gramlich, Edward M, 1994. "Infrastructure Investment: A Review Essay," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(3), pages 1176-96, September.
  10. Sébastien Dessus & Rémy Herrera, 1996. "Le rôle du capital public dans la croissance des pays en développement au cours des années 80," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 115, OECD Publishing.
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Cited by:
  1. Emini, Christian Arnault & Kanmi Feunou, Dorine, 2008. "Decomposing the Effects of Economic Policies on Poverty Trends in Cameroon: A Double Calibration Micro Simulated General Equilibrium Analysis," MPRA Paper 14820, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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