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On the substitution and complimentarity between telework and travel : a review and application


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  • Graaff, Thomas de

    (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie (Free University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics Sciences, Business Administration and Economitrics)


This paper offers a review of the scientific evidence regarding the relation between ICT and travel in general and ICT and commuting in particular. It focuses on the issue of teleworking at home and ignores other interesting phenomena as teleworking centers. The conclusions can be summarized as follows. In the short run, ICT and commuting are to be regarded as weak substitutes, although the relation differs across population groups and parts of the day. If total travel is taken into account, then the relation becomes less clear. However, there also seems to be substitution between non-commute travel and teleworking. This indicates particular recommendations for both environmental and traffic policy. The results are further illustrated by an empirical application from the Netherlands.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics in its series Serie Research Memoranda with number 0016.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:vuarem:2004-16

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Keywords: ICT; travel; commuting; teleworking;

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  1. Jin-Ru Yen, 2000. "Interpreting employee telecommuting adoption: An economics perspective," Transportation, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 149-164, February.
  2. Wee, B. van & Rietveld, P. & Meurs, H., 2002. "A constant travel time budget? In search for explanations for an increase in average travel time," Serie Research Memoranda 0031, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  3. Wales, Terence J., 1978. "Labour supply and commuting time : An empirical study," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 215-226, October.
  4. Bertil Vilhelmson & Eva Thulin, 2001. "Is regular work at fixed places fading away? The development of ICT-based and travel-based modes of work in Sweden," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 33(6), pages 1015-1029, June.
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Cited by:
  1. de Graaff, Thomas & Rietveld, Piet, 2007. "Substitution between working at home and out-of-home: The role of ICT and commuting costs," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 142-160, February.


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