Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

Contents:

Author Info

  • Lennart Hoogerheide

    (Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam)

  • Joern H. Block

    (CASBEC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, and Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)

  • Roy Thurik

    (CASBEC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, EIM Business and Policy Research, Zoetermeer, and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

Abstract

The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data of the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis in order to analyze to what degree violations of the strong validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct effects of the instrument on the dependent variable, the results do not deviate much from the benchmark case of no such effect (perfect validity of the instrument). The size of the bias is in many cases smaller than the standard error of education’s estimated coefficient. Thus, the violation of the strict validity assumption does not necessarily lead to strongly different results when compared to the strict validity case. This provides confidence in the use of family background variables as instruments in income regressions.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://papers.tinbergen.nl/10075.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 10-075/3.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 02 Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20100075

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

Related research

Keywords: education; family background variables; earnings; income; instrumental variables; Bayesian analysis;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Angrist, Joshua D & Krueger, Alan B, 1991. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 979-1014, November.
  2. Brunello, Giorgio & Comi, Simona, 2000. "Education and Earnings Growth: Evidence from 11 European Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 140, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Frank Kleibergen & Eric Zivot, 2003. "Bayesian and Classical Approaches to Instrumental Variable Regression," Working Papers UWEC-2002-21-P, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  4. Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) – Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 127(1), pages 139-169.
  5. Flabbi, Luca & Paternostro, Stefano & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2007. "Returns to education in the economic transition : a systematic assessment using comparable data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4225, The World Bank.
  6. Angus Deaton, 2009. "Instruments of development: Randomization in the tropics, and the search for the elusive keys to economic development," Working Papers 1128, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
  7. Orley Ashenfelter & Colm Harmon & Hessel Oosterbeek, 2000. "A Review of Estimates of the Schooling/Earnings Relationship, with Tests for Publication Bias," NBER Working Papers 7457, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Hoogerheide, Lennart & Kleibergen, Frank & van Dijk, Herman K., 2007. "Natural conjugate priors for the instrumental variables regression model applied to the Angrist-Krueger data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 63-103, May.
  9. Colm Harmon, 2011. "Economic Returns to Education: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and Where We Are Going – Some Brief Pointers," Working Papers 201115, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  10. Fabra, M. Eugenia & Camisón, Cesar, 2009. "Direct and indirect effects of education on job satisfaction: A structural equation model for the Spanish case," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 600-610, October.
  11. Parker, Simon C. & van Praag, C. Mirjam, 2006. "Schooling, Capital Constraints, and Entrepreneurial Performance: The Endogenous Triangle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 416-431, October.
  12. Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2008. "Quality of schooling, returns to schooling and the 1981 vouchers reform in Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4617, The World Bank.
  13. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  14. HOOGERHEIDE, Lennart F. & KAASHOEK, Johan F. & VAN DIJK, Herman K., 2005. "On the shape of posterior densities and credible sets in instrumental variable regression models with reduced rank: An application of flexible sampling methods using neural networks," CORE Discussion Papers 2005029, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  15. Blackburn, McKinley L & Neumark, David, 1995. "Are OLS Estimates of the Return to Schooling Biased Downward? Another Look," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(2), pages 217-30, May.
  16. McKinley L. Blackburn & David Neumark, 1991. "Omitted-Ability Bias and the Increase in the Return to Schooling," NBER Working Papers 3693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011004 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Dinand Webbink, 2005. "Causal Effects in Education," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 535-560, 09.
  19. Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Schooling in developing countries: Which countries are the Over- and underachievers and what is the schooling impact?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 111-127, April.
  20. Oosterbeek, Hessel & Webbink, Dinand, 2007. "Wage effects of an extra year of basic vocational education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 408-419, August.
  21. Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002. "Returns to investment in education : a further update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2881, The World Bank.
  22. Griliches, Zvi & Mason, William M, 1972. "Education, Income, and Ability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S74-S103, Part II, .
  23. Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2011. "A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-004/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  24. Trostel, Philip & Walker, Ian & Woolley, Paul, 2002. "Estimates of the economic return to schooling for 28 countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-16, February.
  25. Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada & Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M., 2005. "Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 161-170, April.
  26. Timothy G. Conley & Christian B. Hansen & Peter E. Rossi, 2012. "Plausibly Exogenous," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 260-272, February.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Fossen, Frank M. & Büttner, Tobias J. M., 2012. "The Returns to Education for Opportunity Entrepreneurs, Necessity Entrepreneurs, and Paid Employees," IZA Discussion Papers 6819, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Nomen Nescio, 2013. "Nomen Nescio," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-095 not issued, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Patrinos, Harry A. & Sakellariou, Chris, 2011. "Quality of Schooling, Returns to Schooling and the 1981 Vouchers Reform in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2245-2256.
  4. repec:dgr:uvatin:2012098 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Sanjaya DeSilva & Mohammed Mehrab Bin Bakhtiar, 2011. "Women, Schooling, and Marriage in Rural Philippines," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_701, Levy Economics Institute.
  6. repec:dgr:uvatin:2012095 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Wang, Le, 2013. "Estimating returns to education when the IV sample is selective," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 74-85.
  8. Arnold Zellner & Tomohiro Ando & Nalan Baştük & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2014. "Bayesian Analysis of Instrumental Variable Models: Acceptance-Rejection within Direct Monte Carlo," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1-4), pages 3-35, June.
  9. Block, Joern H. & Miller, Danny & Wagner, Dominik, 2014. "Bayesian methods in family business research," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 97-104.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20100075. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Antoine Maartens (+31 626 - 160 892)).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.