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Dynamic Factor Models with Smooth Loadings for Analyzing the Term Structure of Interest Rates

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Author Info

  • Borus Jungbacker

    (VU University Amsterdam)

  • Siem Jan Koopman

    (VU University Amsterdam)

  • Michel van der Wel

    (Erasmus University Rotterdam, ERIM, CREATES)

Abstract

We propose a new approach to the modelling of the term structure of interest rates. We consider the general dynamic factor model and show how to impose smoothness restrictions on the factor loadings. We further present a statistical procedure based on Wald tests that can be used to find a suitable set of such restrictions. We present these developments in the context of term structure models, but they are also applicable in other settings. We perform an empirical study using a data set of unsmoothed Fama-Bliss zero yields for US treasuries of different maturities. The general dynamic factor model with and without smooth loadings is considered in this study together with models that are associated with Nelson-Siegel and arbitrage-free frameworks. These existing models can be regarded as special cases of the dynamic factor model with restrictions on the model parameters. For all model candidates, we consider both stationary and nonstationary autoregressive processes (with different numbers of lags) for the latent factors. Finally, we perform statistical hypothesis tests to verify whether the restrictions imposed by the models are supported by the data. Our main conclusion is that smoothness restrictions can be imposed on the loadings of dynamic factor models for the term structure of US interest rates but that the restrictions implied by a number of popular term structure models are rejected.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 09-041/4.

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Date of creation: 00 0000
Date of revision: 17 Sep 2010
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20090041

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

Related research

Keywords: Fama-Bliss data set; Kalman filter; Maximum likelihood; Yield curve;

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References

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  1. de Jong, Frank, 1999. "Time-series and Cross-section Information in Affine Term Structure Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 2065, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic-Factor Model: Identification And Estimation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 540-554, November.
  3. Allan W. Gregory & Allen C. Head & Jacques Raynauld, 1994. "Measuring World Business Cycles," Working Papers 902, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  4. Jushan Bai, 2003. "Inferential Theory for Factor Models of Large Dimensions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 135-171, January.
  5. Hall, Anthony D & Anderson, Heather M & Granger, Clive W J, 1992. "A Cointegration Analysis of Treasury Bill Yields," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 116-26, February.
  6. Jens H. E. Christensen & Francis X. Diebold & Glenn D. Rudebusch, 2007. "The Affine Arbitrage-Free Class of Nelson-Siegel Term Structure Models," PIER Working Paper Archive 07-029, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. Koopman, S.J.M. & Durbin, J., 1998. "Fast Filtering and Smoothing for Multivariate State Space Models," Discussion Paper 1998-18, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Engle, Robert F., 1984. "Wald, likelihood ratio, and Lagrange multiplier tests in econometrics," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 13, pages 775-826 Elsevier.
  9. Clive G. Bowsher & Roland Meeks, 2008. "The dynamics of economics functions: modelling and forecasting the yield curve," Working Papers 0804, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  10. Robert R. Bliss, 1997. "Movements in the term structure of interest rates," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 4, pages 16-33.
  11. Doz, Catherine & Giannone, Domenico & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2006. "A Quasi Maximum Likelihood Approach for Large Approximate Dynamic Factor Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 5724, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Thomas J. Sargent & Christopher A. Sims, 1977. "Business cycle modeling without pretending to have too much a priori economic theory," Working Papers 55, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  13. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 2002. "Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Diffusion Indexes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 147-62, April.
  14. Francis X. Diebold & Canlin Li, 2003. "Forecasting the Term Structure of Government Bond Yields," NBER Working Papers 10048, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Francis X. Diebold & Glenn D. Rudebusch & S. Boragan Aruoba, 2004. "The Macroeconomy and the Yield Curve: A Dynamic Latent Factor Approach," NBER Working Papers 10616, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Connor, Gregory & Korajczyk, Robert A, 1993. " A Test for the Number of Factors in an Approximate Factor Model," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1263-91, September.
  17. Durbin, James & Koopman, Siem Jan, 2001. "Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198523543, September.
  18. Cox, John C & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "A Theory of the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 385-407, March.
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