What explains the Rural-Urban Gap in Infant Mortality — Household or Community Characteristics?
AbstractThe rural-urban gap in infant mortality rates is explained using a new decomposition method that permits identification of the ontribution of unobserved heterogeneity at the household and the community level. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for six Francophone countries in Western Sub-Saharan Africa, we find that differences in the distributions of factors that determine mortality – not differences in their effects – explain almost the entire gap. Higher infant mortality rates in rural areas mainly derive from the rural disadvantage in household level characteristics; both observed and unobserved, which explain three-quarters of the gap. Among the observed characteristics, household environmental factors—potable water, electricity and quality of housing materials—are the most important contributors explaining 38% of the gap. Unobserved household level determinants explain 10% of the gap. Community level determinants explain 13% of the gap, including 3% that is due to unobservable community level heterogeneity. This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Demography , 2009, 46(4), 827-51.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 07-067/3.
Date of creation: 28 Aug 2007
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl
Sub-Saharan Africa; rural-urban inequality; infant mortality; decomposition; unobserved heterogeneity;
Other versions of this item:
- Ellen Poel & Owen O'donnell & Eddy Doorslaer, 2009. "What explains the rural-urban gap in infant mortality: Household or community characteristics?," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 827-850, November.
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
- I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
- O53 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2008-02-23 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2008-02-23 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2008-02-23 (Development)
- NEP-HEA-2008-02-23 (Health Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Folasade, Iyun B., 2000. "Environmental factors, situation of women and child mortality in southwestern Nigeria," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 51(10), pages 1473-1489, November.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
- Manda, Samuel O. M., 1999. "Birth intervals, breastfeeding and determinants of childhood mortality in Malawi," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 301-312, February.
- Kalipeni, Ezekiel, 1993. "Determinants of infant mortality in Malawi: A spatial perspective," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 183-198, July.
- Smith, Lisa C. & Ruel, Marie T. & Ndiaye, Aida, 2005. "Why Is Child Malnutrition Lower in Urban Than in Rural Areas? Evidence from 36 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1285-1305, August.
- Adetunji, Jacob Ayo, 1995. "Infant mortality and mother's education in Ondo State, Nigeria," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 253-263, January.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-15, September.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-55, March-Apr.
- Wang, Limin, 2003. "Determinants of child mortality in LDCs: Empirical findings from demographic and health surveys," Health Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 277-299, September.
- Jens Andvig & Sudharshan Canagarajah & Anne Kielland, 2001. "Child Labor in Africa : Issues and Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9791, The World Bank.
- Ellen van de Poel & Owen O'Donnell & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2007. "Are Urban Children really healthier?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 07-035/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
- World Bank, 2006. "World Development Indicators 2006," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 8151, August.
- Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia & Skrondal, Anders & Pickles, Andrew, 2005. "Maximum likelihood estimation of limited and discrete dependent variable models with nested random effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 128(2), pages 301-323, October.
- Knöbel, Harald H. & Yang, Wen-Shan & Ho, Mei-Shang, 1994. "Urban-rural and regional differences in infant mortality in Taiwan," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 815-822, September.
- Siân Curtis & Ian Diamond & John McDonald, 1993. "Birth interval and family effects on postneonatal mortality in Brazil," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 33-43, February.
- Van de Poel, Ellen & O'Donnell, Owen & Van Doorslaer, Eddy, 2007. "Are urban children really healthier? Evidence from 47 developing countries," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 65(10), pages 1986-2003, November.
- Bhargava, Alok, 2003. "Family planning, gender differences and infant mortality: evidence from Uttar Pradesh, India," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 225-240, January.
- Sophia Rabe-Hesketh & Anders Skrondal & Andrew Pickles, 2002. "Reliable estimation of generalized linear mixed models using adaptive quadrature," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(1), pages 1-21, February.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
- Nandita Saikia & Abhishek Singh & Domantas Jasilionis & Faujdar Ram, 2013. "Explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality in India," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(18), pages 473-506, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Antoine Maartens (+31 626 - 160 892)).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.