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Grow rich while you sleep: Selection in Experiments with Voluntary Participation

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  • Pieter Gautier

    ()
    (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

  • Bas van der Klaauw

    ()
    (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Abstract

We use data from a promotion campaign of NH-Hoteles to study self-selection of participants in a gift-exchange experiment. The promotion campaign allowed guests to pay any non negative amount of money for a stay in one of 36 hotels in Belgium and the Netherlands. The data allow us to distinguish between `regular guests', who booked prior to the announcement of the promotion campaign and guests who booked after the campaign was announced. During the promotion campaign we varied the posted price of a room that was communicated to the guests. Only the regular guests respond to the exogenous variation in the posted price and they pay substantially more on average. This different behavior cannot be explained by differences in satisfaction or observed compositional differences between both groups. We argue that the promotion campaign mainly attracted individuals who find it relatively unimportant to be viewed of as prosocial.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 06-088/3.

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Date of creation: 11 Oct 2006
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20060088

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

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Keywords: field experiment; gift-exchange game; self-selection;

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  1. Roland Bénabou & Jean Tirole, 2005. "Incentives and Prosocial Behavior," NBER Working Papers 11535, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Uri Gneezy & John A List, 2006. "Putting Behavioral Economics to Work: Testing for Gift Exchange in Labor Markets Using Field Experiments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 74(5), pages 1365-1384, 09.
  3. Matthew Rabin, 2006. "A Model of Reference-Dependent Preferences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 121(4), pages 1133-1165, November.
  4. Ofer H. Azar, 2003. "The implications of tipping for economics and management," Others, EconWPA 0309002, EconWPA.
  5. Fehr, Ernst & Kirchsteiger, Georg & Riedl, Arno, 1995. "Gift Exchange and Reciprocity in Competitive Experimental Markets," Economics Series, Institute for Advanced Studies 14, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  6. Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Levine's Working Paper Archive 7656, David K. Levine.
  7. Glenn W. Harrison & John A. List, 2004. "Field Experiments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1009-1055, December.
  8. Ruffle, Bradley J., 1998. "More Is Better, But Fair Is Fair: Tipping in Dictator and Ultimatum Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 247-265, May.
  9. Soetevent, Adriaan R., 2005. "Anonymity in giving in a natural context--a field experiment in 30 churches," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 89(11-12), pages 2301-2323, December.
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