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Quantifying the Scope for Efficiency Defense in Merger Control: The Werden-Froeb-Index

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Author Info

  • Marie Goppelsroeder

    ()
    (Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland)

  • Maarten Pieter Schinkel

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiteit van Amsterdam)

  • Jan Tuinstra

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiteit van Amsterdam)

Abstract

This paper introduces the Werden-Froeb Index (WFI) to assist in evaluating merger-specific efficiencies in horizontal mergers. The index measures the weighted average reduction in marginal costs required to restore pre-merger equilibrium prices and quantities after the (full or partial) merger is consummated. The WFI is well defined, objective and robust, and it has relatively low information requirements. We propose to use the index as a natural complement to concentration measures such as the Hirschmann-Herfindahl Index in the assessment of horizontal mergers. This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in The Journal of Industrial Economics , 56(4), 778-808.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 06-074/1.

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Date of creation: 25 Aug 2006
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20060074

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

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Keywords: Merger control; efficiency defense; index; HHI;

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References

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  1. Perry, Martin K & Porter, Robert H, 1985. "Oligopoly and the Incentive for Horizontal Merger," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 219-27, March.
  2. Werden, G.J., 1996. "A Robust Test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers Among Sellers of Differentiated Products," Papers 96-01, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
  3. Roy J. Epstein & Daniel L. Rubinfeld, 2002. "Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach with New Applications," Industrial Organization 0201002, EconWPA.
  4. Werden, G.J. & G.J. & Froeb, L.M., 1995. "Simulation as an Alternative to Structural Merger Policy in Differentiated Products Industries," Papers 95-02, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
  5. Farrell, Joseph & Shapiro, Carl, 1988. "Horizontal Mergers: An Equilibrium Analysis," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt0tp305nx, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  6. Fabrizi, Simona & Lippert, Steffen, 2005. "How much efficiency gains and price reductions for an efficiency defense? 'Quanto Basta'," DFAEII Working Papers 2004-04, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
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  9. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Johan Stennek & Frank Verboven, 2000. "Efficiency Gains from Mergers," CIG Working Papers FS IV 00-09, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
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  11. Farrell, Joseph & Shapiro, Carl, 2000. "Scale Economies and Synergies in Horizontal Merger Analysis," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt8v1500b8, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  12. Johan Lagerlöf & Paul Heidhues, 2002. "On the Desirability of an Efficiency Defense in Merger Control," CIG Working Papers FS IV 02-08, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  13. Froeb, L.M. & Werden, G.J., 1997. "A Robust test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers Among Sellers of a Homogeneous Product," Papers 97-1, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
  14. Kamien, Morton I & Zang, Israel, 1993. "Monopolization by Sequential Acquisition," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 205-29, October.
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  17. Fisher,Franklin M. & Shell,Karl, 1998. "Economic Analysis of Production Price Indexes," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521556231, October.
  18. Epstein, Roy J. & Rubinfeld, Daniel, 2012. "Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach with New Applications," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt2k9116ph, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  19. Fisher, Franklin M, 1987. "Horizontal Mergers: Triage and Treatment," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 23-40, Fall.
  20. Epstein, Roy J. & Rubinfeld, Daniel L., 2001. "Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach with New Applications," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9jt389nb, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  21. Rubinfeld, Daniel L. & Epstein, Roy J., 2001. "Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach with New Applications," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt2sq9s8c8, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  22. Werden, Gregory J, 1996. "A Robust Test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers among Sellers of Differentiated Products," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 409-13, December.
  23. Raymond Deneckere & Carl Davidson, 1985. "Incentives to Form Coalitions with Bertrand Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(4), pages 473-486, Winter.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Emilie Dargaud, 2013. "Horizontal mergers, efficiency gains and remedies," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 349-372, October.
  2. Shapiro, Carl & Farrell, Joseph, 2008. "Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt35c5f846, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  3. Bos Jaap W.B. & Ling Chan Yee & Kolari James W & Yuan Jiang, 2010. "Competition and Critical Mass," Research Memorandum 063, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).

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