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The Bicausal Relation between Religion and Income


Author Info

  • Leon Bettendorf

    (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam)

  • Elbert Dijkgraaf

    (SEOR-ECRI, and Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam)


In this paper the relation between religion and income is investigated using a micro-dataset for the Netherlands. Religiosity is measured by religious membership and by participation. Instead of estimating separately a religion and an income equation, joint regression is preferred since this generally yields more efficient estimates. Following the single equation approach, both religious measures are found to decrease significantly income and income is found to affect negatively religion. However, these cross-effects get insignificant once the equations are simultaneously estimated. In contrast, the effects of socio-economic characteristics on religion and income hardly differ between both approaches. This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Applied Economics .

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 05-105/2.

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Date of creation: 14 Nov 2005
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20050105

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Keywords: Income; Religious Membership; Religious Participation;

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Cited by:
  1. Bruno, Bruna & Fiorillo, Damiano, 2013. "Voluntary work and labour income," MPRA Paper 43995, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Bruno, Bruna & Fiorillo, Damiano, 2014. "Voluntary work and wages," MPRA Paper 52989, University Library of Munich, Germany.


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