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Acquisitions as a Real Options Bidding Game

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Author Info

  • Han T.J. Smit

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam)

  • Ward A. van den Berg

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam)

  • Wouter De Maeseneire

    (Ghent University, and Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam)

Abstract

This paper uses a unified treatment of real options and game theory to examine value appropriation in takeovers within a competitive environment of imperfect information. The integrated model considers a potential target as a shared real option on a bundle of resources. Competing potential buyers may sequentially perform due diligence and incur costs (option premium) to become informed about their firm-specific target value (underlying value) before making a bid (exercise price). The first player’s bid provides a signal on its own and rivals’ target value, thereby affecting potential bidders’ option value. The level of information costs and the option value, affected by heterogeneity between bidders (correlation), their expected target value, and uncertainty, determine value appropriation in acquisitions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 04-084/2.

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Date of creation: 16 Jun 2004
Date of revision: 23 Feb 2005
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20040084

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

Related research

Keywords: Acquisitions; Competitive bidding; Real options; Resources; Option game;

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References

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  1. Stulz, Rene M & Walkling, Ralph A & Song, Moon H, 1990. " The Distribution of Target Ownership and the Division of Gains in Successful Takeovers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 817-33, July.
  2. Burkart, Mike, 1995. " Initial Shareholdings and Overbidding in Takeover Contests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1491-1515, December.
  3. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, . "The Allocational Role of Takeover Bids in Situations of Asymmetric Information," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 06-80, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  4. Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1991. "A test of the free cash flow hypothesis*1: The case of bidder returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 315-335, October.
  5. Mark Bagnoli, Barton L. Lipman, 1988. "Successful Takeovers without Exclusion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 89-110.
  6. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-88, June.
  7. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
  8. Hans T. J. Smit, 2001. "Acquisition Strategies As Option Games," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(2), pages 79-89.
  9. Margrabe, William, 1978. "The Value of an Option to Exchange One Asset for Another," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 33(1), pages 177-86, March.
  10. Kathleen Fuller & Jeffry Netter & Mike Stegemoller, 2002. "What Do Returns to Acquiring Firms Tell Us? Evidence from Firms That Make Many Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1763-1793, 08.
  11. Lambrecht, Bart M., 2004. "The timing and terms of mergers motivated by economies of scale," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 41-62, April.
  12. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Jegadeesh, Narasimhan, 1994. "Pre-Tender Offer Share Acquisition Strategy in Takeovers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(01), pages 117-129, March.
  13. Bradley, Michael & Desai, Anand & Kim, E. Han, 1983. "The rationale behind interfirm tender offers : Information or synergy?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 183-206, April.
  14. Song, Moon H. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1993. "The Impact of Managerial Ownership on Acquisition Attempts and Target Shareholder Wealth," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 439-457, December.
  15. Kaplan, Steven, 1989. " Management Buyouts: Evidence on Taxes as a," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 611-32, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Flavio Toxvaerd, 2004. "Strategic Merger Waves: A Theory of Musical Chairs," Discussion Paper Series dp359, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

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