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Environmental Regulation and International Trade

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  • Abay Mulatu

    ()
    (London School of Economics, London)

  • Raymond J.G.M. Florax

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

  • Cees A. Withagen

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Abstract

We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ‘dirty’ domestic industries, and as a result, ‘pollution havens’ emerge in countries where environmental regulation is ‘over-lax.’ We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977–1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in ‘dirty’ commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 04-020/3.

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Date of creation: 17 Feb 2004
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20040020

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Related research

Keywords: Trade; competitiveness; environmental policy; pollution abatement; pollution haven;

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References

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  1. Harkness, Jon, 1981. "Cross-Section Tests of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem: Reply [Factor Abundance and Comparative Advantage]," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 1044-48, December.
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  3. Adam B. Jaffe et al., 1995. "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 132-163, March.
  4. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 1998. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," NBER Working Papers 6707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Zvi Griliches, 1970. "Notes on the Role of Education in Production Functions and Growth Accounting," NBER Chapters, in: Education, Income, and Human Capital, pages 71-128 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-87, August.
  7. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1995. "Trade and Transboundary Pollution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 716-37, September.
  8. Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2004. "Trade, Growth, and the Environment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 7-71, March.
  9. Horst Siebert, 1974. "Environmental protection and international specialization," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 110(3), pages 494-508, September.
  10. Arik Levinson & M. Scott Taylor, 2008. "Unmasking The Pollution Haven Effect," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(1), pages 223-254, 02.
  11. Siebert, Horst, 1974. "Environmental protection and international specialization," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3529, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  12. Deardorff, Alan V., 1984. "Testing trade theories and predicting trade flows," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 467-517 Elsevier.
  13. Josh Ederington & Jenny Minier, 2000. "Is Environmental Policy a Secondary Trade Barrier? An Empirical Analysis," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1507, Econometric Society.
  14. Revesz, Richard L. & Stavins, Robert N., 2007. "Environmental Law," Handbook of Law and Economics, Elsevier.
  15. Xinpeng Xu, 2000. "International Trade and Environmental Regulation: Time Series Evidence and Cross Section Test," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(3), pages 233-257, November.
  16. Abay Mulatu & Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Cees A.A.M. Withagen, 2001. "Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-039/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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Cited by:
  1. Odd Rune Straume, 2006. "Product Market Integration and Environmental Policy Coordination in An International Duopoly," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(4), pages 535-563, August.
  2. Stoschek, Barbara, 2007. "The political economy of environmental regulations and industry compensation," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 65, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  3. Koetse, Mark J. & de Groot, Henri L.F. & Florax, Raymond J.G.M., 2008. "Capital-energy substitution and shifts in factor demand: A meta-analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2236-2251, September.
  4. Babool, Md. Ashfaqul Islam & Reed, Michael R., 2005. "International Competitiveness and Environmental Regulations," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19496, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  5. Stoschek, Barbara, 2007. "The political economy of environmental regulations and industry compensation," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 65, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  6. Medalla, Erlinda M. & Lazaro, Dorothea C., 2005. "Does Trade Lead to a Race to the Bottom in Environmental Standards? Another Look at the Issues," Discussion Papers DP 2005-23, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

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