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Externalities in the Urban Economy

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Author Info

  • Erik T. Verhoef

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

  • Peter Nijkamp

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the economics of urban externalities. We start by reviewing the literature on urban externalities, and observe that although many interesting contributions have been made, there seems to be sufficient scope and need for further research, both theoretically and empirically. We identify what we believe to be important advances to be pursued in future research on urban externalities. These include (1) the explicit consideration of mutual interactions between externalities; (2) a thorough analysis of the relationship between these externalities and urban form; and (3) a clear focus on (realistic) second-best policies. The importance of these issues is illustrated by developing a simple urban general equilibrium model in which we study the interactions between agglomeration externalities and pollution from commuting. Our results show that seemingly impossible findings from a non-spatial perspective, namely a simultaneous stimulation of agglo!meration externalities and a reduction of environmental externalities, is in fact the outcome of first-best policies in our spatial model. Moreover, while the incentives from road pricing and labour subsidies would seem to be perfectly opposite in a non-spatial setting, leaving one of the two instruments redundant, our results show that their welfare effects may, in contrast, turn out to be strongly super-additive when a spatial perspective is taken.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 03-078/3.

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Date of creation: 30 Sep 2003
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20030078

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

Related research

Keywords: Urban equilibrium; environmental and agglomeration externalities; second-best regulation;

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References

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  1. Antonio Ciccone & Robert E. Hall, 1995. "Productivity and the density of economic activity," Economics Working Papers 120, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  2. Alex Anas & Richard Arnott & Kenneth A. Small, 1998. "Urban Spatial Structure," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1426-1464, September.
  3. Erik T. Verhoef & Peter Nijkamp, 2000. "Externalities in Urban Sustainability," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-077/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Henderson, J Vernon, 1985. "The Tiebout Model: Bring Back the Entrepreneurs," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(2), pages 248-64, April.
  5. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A., 1999. "Urban transportation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 1937-1999 Elsevier.
  6. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  7. Parry, Ian W H & Bento, Antonio, 2001. " Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 103(4), pages 645-71, December.
  8. E T Verhoef & J C J M van den Bergh & K J Button, 1997. "Transport, spatial economy, and the global environment," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(7), pages 1195-1213, July.
  9. Arnott, Richard, 1979. "Optimal city size in a spatial economy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 65-89, January.
  10. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  11. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  12. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Networks - Algorithms for Finding Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-084/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  13. Anas, Alex & Kim, Ikki, 1996. "General Equilibrium Models of Polycentric Urban Land Use with Endogenous Congestion and Job Agglomeration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 232-256, September.
  14. Tabuchi, Takatoshi, 1998. "Urban Agglomeration and Dispersion: A Synthesis of Alonso and Krugman," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 333-351, November.
  15. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1986. "Efficiency of resource usage and city size," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 47-70, January.
  16. Sullivan, Arthur M., 1986. "A general equilibrium model with agglomerative economies and decentralized employment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 55-74, July.
  17. Verhoef, Erik T., 2002. "Second-best congestion pricing in general networks. Heuristic algorithms for finding second-best optimal toll levels and toll points," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 707-729, September.
  18. Verhoef, Erik T. & Nijkamp, Peter, 2002. "Externalities in urban sustainability: Environmental versus localization-type agglomeration externalities in a general spatial equilibrium model of a single-sector monocentric industrial city," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 157-179, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Toon Vandyck & Stef Proost, 2011. "Regional government competition and incentives for commuting taxes and transport investments," ERSA conference papers ersa11p892, European Regional Science Association.
  2. Rainald Borck & Matthias Wrede, 2008. "Subsidies for Intracity and Intercity Commuting," CESifo Working Paper Series 2321, CESifo Group Munich.

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