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Why less? The Gendered Aspects of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Ownership under Economic Transition


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  • Ruta Aidis

    (University of Amsterdam)


This paper explores the gendered influence on SME development under economic transition in Lithuania. Previous studies have shown that male and female business owners are more different than similar in terms of personal and business characteristics (Brush 1992). An analysis of 332 SME owners in Lithuania using descriptive statistics and regression analysis indicates that there are significant differences not only in objective criteria such as business size and business turnover but also in terms of subjective criteria such as perceived business financial 'success' and general business 'success'. Gendered expectations such as norms, values and social expectations (i.e. informal rules) that have been internalized or continue to exert external pressure seem to be at the heart of this discrepancy.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 02-055/2.

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Date of creation: 11 Jun 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20020055

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Keywords: SMEs; gender; transition economies; Lithuania; entrepreneurship.;

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  1. Ruta Aidis, 2003. "Officially Despised Yet Tolerated: Open-air Markets and Entrepreneurship in Post-socialist Countries," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 461-473.
  2. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. " Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-45, June.
  3. Simon Johnson & Daniel Kaufmann & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2003. "Why Do Firms Hide? Bribes and Unofficial Activity after Communism," Public Economics 0308004, EconWPA.
  4. Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. " Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
  5. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project, 1999. "Women in Transition," Regional Monitoring Report remore99/1, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
  6. Smallbone, David & Welter, Friederike, 2001. " The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 249-62, June.
  7. Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
  8. Ruta Aidis, 2002. "Why don't we see more Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Lithuania?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-038/2, Tinbergen Institute.
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Cited by:
  1. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2010. "The Gendered Aspects of MSEs in MENA: Evidence from Egypt and Turkey," Working Papers 417, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2010.
  2. Ruta Aidis, 2003. "Officially Despised Yet Tolerated: Open-air Markets and Entrepreneurship in Post-socialist Countries," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 461-473.


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