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Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing

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Author Info

  • C. Robin Lindsey

    (University of Alberta)

  • Erik T. Verhoef

    ()
    (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Abstract

For several decades growth of traffic volumes has outstrippedinvestments inroad infrastructure. The result has been a relentless increase intrafficcongestion. This paper reviews the economic principles behindcongestionpricing in static and dynamic settings, which derive from thebenefits ofcharging travellers for the externalities they create. Specialattention ispaid to various complications that make simple textbook congestionpricingmodels of limited relevance, and dictate that congestion pricingschemes bestudied from the perspective of the theory of the second best. Thesecomplications include pricing in networks, heterogeneity of users,stochasticcongestion, interactions of the transport sector with the rest of theeconomy,and tolling on private roads. Also the implications of congestionpricing foroptimal road capacity are considered, and finally some explanationsfor thelongstanding social and political resistance to road pricing areoffered.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 00-101/3.

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Date of creation: 21 Nov 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20000101

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

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References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Parry, Ian & Bento, Antonio, 1999. "Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing," Discussion Papers dp-99-45, Resources For the Future.
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  6. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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  8. Richard Arnott & Marvin Kraus, 1997. "When are Anonymous Congestion Charges Consistent with Marginal Cost Pricing?," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 354., Boston College Department of Economics.
  9. AndrÊ de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 2000. "Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-35.
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  11. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1992. "Route choice with heterogeneous drivers and group-specific congestion costs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 71-102, March.
  12. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Static Transportation Networks with Elastic Demands," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-078/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  13. Verhoef Erik T., 1997. "Externalities," Serie Research Memoranda 0031, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  14. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
  15. Small, Kenneth A. & Yan, Jia, 2001. "The Value of "Value Pricing" of Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9569k1sz, University of California Transportation Center.
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  17. Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 305., Boston College Department of Economics.
  18. May, A. D. & Milne, D. S., 2000. "Effects of alternative road pricing systems on network performance," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 407-436, August.
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  25. Yang, Hai & Hai-Jun, Huang, 1997. "Analysis of the time-varying pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand using optimal control theory," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 425-440, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. André de Palma & Robin Lindsey & Fang Wu, 2007. "Private operators and time-of-day tolling on a congested road network," THEMA Working Papers 2007-02, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  2. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren, 2010. "The stability of downtown parking and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 260-276, November.
  3. Steininger, Karl W. & Friedl, Birgit & Gebetsroither, Brigitte, 2007. "Sustainability impacts of car road pricing: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Austria," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-69, June.
  4. Safirova, Elena A. & Houde, Sébastien & Coleman, Conrad T. & Harrington, Winston & Lipman, D. Abram, 2006. "Long-Term Consequences of Congestion Pricing: A Small Cordon in the Hand Is Worth Two in the Bush," Discussion Papers dp-06-42, Resources For the Future.
  5. José Holguín-Veras & Qian Wang & Ning Xu & Kaan Ozbay, 2011. "The impacts of time of day pricing on car user behavior: findings from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey’s initiative," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 427-443, May.
  6. Erik T. Verhoef & Jan Rouwendal, 2001. "A Structural Model of Traffic Congestion," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-026/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Oct 2003.
  7. Jan Rouwendal & Erik T. Verhoef, 2003. "Second-best Pricing for Imperfect Substitutes in Urban Networks," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-085/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Levinson, David, 2005. "Micro-foundations of congestion and pricing: A game theory perspective," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(7-9), pages 691-704.
  9. Pascal Courty & Mario Pagliero, 2008. "Does Responsive Pricing Smooth Demand Shocks?," Economics Working Papers ECO2008/01, European University Institute.
  10. José Holguín-Veras & Sergio Jara-Díaz, 2010. "Optimal Two-Part Pricing and Capacity Allocation with Multiple User Classes and Elastic Arrivals at Constrained Transportation Facilities," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 427-454, December.
  11. Yafeng Yin & Siriphong Lawphongpanich, 2009. "Alternative marginal-cost pricing for road networks," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 77-83, April.
  12. Ronnie Schöb, 2005. "Not optimal, but Effective: the Multi-Mode Ticket for Reducing Urban Traffic Congestion in Medium-Sized Towns," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 3(3), pages 28-33, November.
  13. André De Palma & Robin Lindsey, 2009. "Traffic Congestion Pricing Methods and Technologies," Working Papers hal-00414526, HAL.
  14. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. McArthur, David Philip & Thorsen, Inge & Ubøe, Jan, 2009. "Congested Interregional Infrastructure, Road Pricing and Regional Labour Markets," Discussion Papers 2009/3, Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics.

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