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Time, Speeds, Flows and Densities in Static Models of Road Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing

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Author Info

  • Erik Verhoef

    ()
    (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Abstract

This paper studies some of the properties and fundamentals of static models of road traffic congestion that have triggered much debate in the literature. The first part of the paper focuses in particular on the difficulties arising with the backward-bending cost curve in the context of 'continuous congestion'. Therelevance of the backward-bending segment of the cost curve for the static analysis of congestion is questioned by demonstrating that 'equilibria' on this segment produce upwards shifts of the cost curve itself, and can therefore not be of a stationary nature. Next, the implications for static models of 'peakcongestion' are considered. In doing so, the paper addresses the implicit assumptions, particularly on the nature of scheduling costs, that are necessary to render static models of peak congestion internally consistent. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications for dynamic models of peakcongestion.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 97-070/3.

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Date of creation: 26 Jun 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dgr:uvatin:19970070

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Web page: http://www.tinbergen.nl

Related research

Keywords: Road traffic congestion; congestion pricing;

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References

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  1. Verhoef, Erik T. & Emmerink, Richard H. M. & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Information provision, flat and fine congestion tolling and the efficiency of road usage," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 505-529, August.
  2. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing: The Case of an Untolled Alternative," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 279-302, November.
  3. Mun, Se-il, 1994. "Traffic jams and the congestion toll," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 365-375, October.
  4. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A., 1999. "Urban transportation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 1937-1999 Elsevier.
  5. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-79, March.
  6. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
  7. Erik T. Verhoef, 1998. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion based on Simple Car-Following Theory," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Verhoef Erik T., 1997. "Externalities," Serie Research Memoranda 0031, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  9. De Meza, David & Gould, J R, 1987. "Free Access versus Private Property in a Resource: Income Distributions Compared," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1317-25, December.
  10. Verhoef, Erik, 1995. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility: A comment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 459-465, November.
  11. Moshe Ben-Akiva & Andre de Palma & Pavlos Kanaroglou, 1984. "Dynamic Model of Peak Period Traffic Congestion with Elastic Arrival Rates," Working Papers 588, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  12. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 83-91, March.
  13. Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 305., Boston College Department of Economics.
  14. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  15. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  16. Evans, Alan W, 1992. "Road Congestion: The Diagrammatic Analysis: Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 211-17, February.
  17. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
  18. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The Demand Curve Under Road Pricing and the Problem of Political Feasibility," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5165m7jr, University of California Transportation Center.
  19. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
  20. Braid, Ralph M., 1989. "Uniform versus peak-load pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 320-327, November.
  21. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Arnott, Richard, 2013. "A bathtub model of downtown traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 110-121.
  2. Erik T. Verhoef, 1998. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion based on Simple Car-Following Theory," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. repec:dgr:uvatin:2099091 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren, 2010. "The stability of downtown parking and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 260-276, November.
  5. repec:dgr:uvatin:1999091 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Verhoef, Erik Teodoor, 2000. "The Generalized Second-Best Network Congestion Pricing Problem," ERSA conference papers ersa00p336, European Regional Science Association.
  7. Verhoef, Erik T., 2002. "Second-best congestion pricing in general static transportation networks with elastic demands," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 281-310, May.
  8. Cameron Hepburn, 2006. "Regulation by Prices, Quantities, or Both: A Review of Instrument Choice," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 226-247, Summer.
  9. Verhoef, Erik T. & Rouwendal, Jan, 2004. "A behavioural model of traffic congestion: Endogenizing speed choice, traffic safety and time losses," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 408-434, November.
  10. Liu, Ronghui & May, Tony & Shepherd, Simon, 2011. "On the fundamental diagram and supply curves for congested urban networks," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 951-965, November.
  11. Tsekeris, Theodore & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "City size, network structure and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-14.
  12. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
  13. repec:dgr:uvatin:2000084 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. repec:dgr:uvatin:2000078 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00467888 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Erik T. Verhoef & Jan Rouwendal, 2001. "A Structural Model of Traffic Congestion," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-026/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Oct 2003.
  17. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Networks - Algorithms for Finding Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-084/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  18. Verhoef, Erik Teodoor, 2002. "Inside the queue: hypercongestion and road pricing in a continuous time - continuous place model of traffic congestion," ERSA conference papers ersa02p068, European Regional Science Association.

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