Rough Road to Market: Institutional Barriers to Innovations in Africa
AbstractTranslating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and instititonal barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors that foster or hinder the complex process of translating R&D efforts into innovative products. Different pathways exist in developed countries such as firm-level efforts, the use of IPs, the spin-off of new firms that develop new products, or a mixture of these. Developing countries differ substantially in the kinds of instruments they use because of their considerably weaker institutional environment and for this reason our framework takes a systemic and institutional perspective. The paper comtributes to this issue by examining systemic institutional barriers to commercializing biotechnology in a develping context within a systems of innovation framework.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by United Nations University, Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology in its series UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series with number 026.
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.merit.unu.edu
research and development; biotechnology; commercialization; innovation; Africa; learning; institution building;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- O32 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
- L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property Rights
- O17 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2006-07-02 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2006-07-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2006-07-02 (Development)
- NEP-ENT-2006-07-02 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-INO-2006-07-02 (Innovation)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Malerba, Franco, 1992. "Learning by Firms and Incremental Technical Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(413), pages 845-59, July.
- Pisano, Gary P., 1996. "Learning-before-doing in the development of new process technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1097-1119, October.
- Lehrer, Mark & Asakawa, Kazuhiro, 2004. "Rethinking the public sector: idiosyncrasies of biotechnology commercialization as motors of national R&D reform in Germany and Japan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6-7), pages 921-938, September.
- Teubal, Morris & Andersen, Esben, 2000. "Enterprise Restructuring and Embeddedness: A Policy and Systems Perspective," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(1), pages 87-111, March.
- Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
- Anoop Madhok & Thomas Osegowitsch, 2000. "The International Biotechnology Industry: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(2), pages 325-335, June.
- Giesecke, Susanne, 2000. "The contrasting roles of government in the development of biotechnology industry in the US and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 205-223, February.
- Oliver, Amalya L., 2004. "Biotechnology entrepreneurial scientists and their collaborations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 583-597, May.
- North, Douglass C., 1993.
"Economic Performance through Time,"
Nobel Prize in Economics documents
1993-2, Nobel Prize Committee.
- Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji & Lal, Kaushalesh, 2003. "The Internet Diffusion in Sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country Analysis," Discussion Papers 5, United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies.
- Bengt-ake Lundvall & Bjorn Johnson, 1994. "The Learning Economy," Industry & Innovation, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 23-42.
- Arundel, Anthony, 2001. "The relative effectiveness of patents and secrecy for appropriation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 611-624, April.
- Arundel, Anthony, 2001. "The relative effectiveness of patents and secrecy for appropriation," Open Access publications from Maastricht University urn:nbn:nl:ui:27-19185, Maastricht University.
- Inzelt, Annamaria, 2004. "The evolution of university-industry-government relationships during transition," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6-7), pages 975-995, September.
- Taanman, Mattijs & Groot, Arend de & Kemp, René & Verspagen, Bart, 2006.
"Diffusion Paths for Micro Cogeneration Using Hydrogen in the Netherlands,"
UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series
025, United Nations University, Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology.
- Taanman, M. & Groot, A. de & Kemp, R. & Verspagen, B., 2008. "Diffusion paths for micro cogeneration using hydrogen in the Netherlands," Open Access publications from Maastricht University urn:nbn:nl:ui:27-17991, Maastricht University.
- Kaiser, Robert & Prange, Heiko, 2004. "The reconfiguration of National Innovation Systems--the example of German biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 395-408, April.
- Keld Laursen & Ammon Salter, 2003. "Searching Low and High What Types of Firms use Universities as a Source of Innovation?," DRUID Working Papers 03-16, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Wesley M. Cohen & Richard R. Nelson & John P. Walsh, 2002. "Links and Impacts: The Influence of Public Research on Industrial R&D," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 1-23, January.
- Reginald Brennenraedts & Rudi Bekkers & Bart Verspagen, 2006. "The different channels of university-industry knowledge transfer: Empirical evidence from Biomedical Engineering," Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) working paper series 06-04, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS), revised Feb 2006.
- Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
- Gehl Sampath, Padmashree, 2006. "Indian Pharma Within Global Reach?," UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series 031, United Nations University, Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.