Worker Remittances and Growth: The Physical and Human Capital Channels
AbstractRemittances may have an impact on economic growth through channels to physical and human capital. We estimate two variants of an open economy model of these two channels consisting of seven equations using the general method of moments with heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation correction (GMM-HAC) with pooled data for four different samples of countries receiving remittances in 2003. The countries with per capita income below $1200 benefit most from remittances in the long run because they have the largest impact of remittances on savings. Their remittances account for about 2% of the steady-state level of GDP per capita when compared to the counterfactual of having no remittances. Their ratio of the steady-state growth rates with and without remittances is 1.39. Transitional gains are higher than the steady-state gains only for the human capital variables of this sample. As savings react much more strongly than investment an important benefit of remittances is that less debt is incurred and less debt service is paid than without remittances. The elasticity of the GNI/GDP ratio with respect to the remittance/GDP ratio is .002. All effects are much weaker for the richer countries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by United Nations University, Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology in its series UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series with number 020.
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.merit.unu.edu
remittances; growth; simultaneous equation model;
Other versions of this item:
- Thomas H.W. Ziesemer, 2009. "Worker Remittances and Growth: The Physical and Human Capital Channels," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(6), pages 743-773, December.
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
- C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Longitudinal Data; Spatial Time Series
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-06-17 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2006-06-17 (Development)
- NEP-FDG-2006-06-17 (Financial Development & Growth)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2000.
"The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?,"
NBER Working Papers
7777, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," International Trade 0012003, EconWPA.
- Maurice Obstfeld and Kenneth Rogoff., 2000. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C00-112, University of California at Berkeley.
- Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2000. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt0sx02651, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Schiff, Maurice, 2005.
"Brain gain : claims about its size and impact on welfare and growth are greatly exaggerated,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3708, The World Bank.
- Schiff, Maurice, 2005. "Brain Gain: Claims about Its Size and Impact on Welfare and Growth Are Greatly Exaggerated," IZA Discussion Papers 1599, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Johnson, Paul & Durlauf, Steven N & Temple, Johnathan R. W., 2004.
Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series
61, Vassar College Department of Economics.
- Verner, Dorte, 2005. "What factors influence world literacy? is Africa different?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3496, The World Bank.
- Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2009.
"Remittances, financial development, and growth,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 144-152, September.
- Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2006. "Remittances, Financial Development, and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 2160, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Marta Ruiz-Arranz & Paola Giuliano, 2005. "Remittances, Financial Development, and Growth," IMF Working Papers 05/234, International Monetary Fund.
- Barro, R.J. & Mankiw, N.G. & Sala-i-Martin, X., 1992.
"Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth,"
655, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Robert J. Barro & N. Gregory Mankiw & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1995. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," NBER Working Papers 4206, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Barro & N. Gregory Mankiw & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1994. "Capital mobility in Neoclassical models of growth," Economics Working Papers 82, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Barro, R. & Mankiw, G., 1992. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1615, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Barro, Robert J. & Mankiw, N Gregory & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1994. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1019, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Adams, Richard Jr. & Page, John, 2005. "Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1645-1669, October.
- Freund, Caroline & Spatafora, Nikola, 2005. "Remittances : transaction costs, determinants, and informal flows," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3704, The World Bank.
- Islam, Nazrul, 1995. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1127-70, November.
- Hristos Doucouliagos & Martin Paldam, 2006.
"Aid Effectiveness on Accumulation: A Meta Study,"
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 227-254, 05.
- Ralph Chami & Connel Fullenkamp & Samir Jahjah, 2005.
"Are Immigrant Remittance Flows a Source of Capital for Development?,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(1), pages 55-81, April.
- Samir Jahjah & Ralph Chami & Connel Fullenkamp, 2003. "Are Immigrant Remittance Flows a Source of Capital for Development," IMF Working Papers 03/189, International Monetary Fund.
- Norman Loayza & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Luis Servén, 1999.
"What Drives Private Saving Across the World?,"
Working Papers Central Bank of Chile
47, Central Bank of Chile.
- Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frédéric, 2005.
"The Economics of Migrants’ Remittances,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
- Adams, Richard H. Jr., 2007.
"International remittances and the household : analysis and review of global evidence,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4116, The World Bank.
- Richard H. Adams, 2006. "International Remittances and the Household: Analysis and Review of Global Evidence," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 15(2), pages 396-425, December.
- Hristos Doucouliagos & Martin Paldam, 2005.
"Conditional Aid Effectiveness. A Meta Study,"
Economics Working Papers
2005-14, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
- Boozer, Michael A., 1997. "Econometric Analysis of Panel Data Badi H. Baltagi Wiley, 1995," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(05), pages 747-754, October.
- Krishna Mazumdar, 2005. "Socio-economic factors determining adult literacy in developing countries," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(1/2), pages 98-120, January.
- Carlos Vargas-Silva & Peng Huang, 2005.
"Macroeconomic Determinants of Workers’ Remittances: Host vs. Home Country’s Economic Conditions,"
0507007, EconWPA, revised 29 Jul 2005.
- Carlos Vargas-Silva & Peng Huang, 2006. "Macroeconomic determinantsof workers' remittances: Hostversus home country's economic conditions," Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 81-99.
- David Dollar & Craig Burnside, 2000.
"Aid, Policies, and Growth,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 847-868, September.
- Michael T. Gapen & Thomas F. Cosimano & Ralph Chami, 2006. "Beware of Emigrants Bearing Gifts: Optimal Fiscal and Monetary Policy in the Presence of Remittances," IMF Working Papers 06/61, International Monetary Fund.
- Otani, Ichiro & Villanueva, Delano, 1990. "Long-term growth in developing countries and its determinants: An empirical analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 769-783, June.
- Marianna Belloc & Giancarlo Gandolfo, 2005. "The Current Account - Interest Rate Relation as a Nonlinear Phenomenon," Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 145-166.
- Bardhan, Pranab K & Lewis, Sydney, 1970.
"Models of Growth with Imported Inputs,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 37(148), pages 373-85, November.
- El-Sakka, M. I. T. & McNabb, Robert, 1999. "The Macroeconomic Determinants of Emigrant Remittances," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1493-1502, August.
- Niimi, Yoko & Ozden, Caglar, 2006. "Migration and remittances : causes and linkages," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4087, The World Bank.
- Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
- Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Supply-Side Economics: An Analytical Review," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 293-316, April.
- Docquier, Frédéric, 2006. "Brain Drain and Inequality Across Nations," IZA Discussion Papers 2440, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Azariadis, Costas & Drazen, Allan, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-26, May.
- Dilek Cinar & Frédéric Docquier, 2004. "Brain drain and Remittances: implications for the source country," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 47(1), pages 103-118.
- Bertoli Simone, 2006. "Remittances and the Dynamics of Human Capitalin the Recipient Country," Department of Economics Working Papers 200607, University of Turin.
- Amparo Castello & Rafael Domenech, 2002. "Human Capital Inequality and Economic Growth: Some New Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages C187-C200, March.
- Tausch, Arno & Heshmati, Almas, 2011.
"Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of 'Smart Development',"
IZA Discussion Papers
6169, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Arno Tausch & Almas Heshmati, 2012. "Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of "Smart Development"," Bogazici Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Bogazici University, Department of Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 1-62.
- Laurent Gheeraert & Ritha Sukadi Mata & Daniel Traca, 2010. "Remittances and Domestic Investment in Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Role of Financial Sector Development," Working Papers CEB 10-013.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Anupam Das & Murshed Chowdhury, 2011. "Remittances and GDP Dynamics in 11 Developing Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and PMG Techniques," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(42), pages 3-23, December.
- Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A. & Kennedy, P. Lynn, 2009. "Remittances and economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Impact of the human capital development," 2009 Annual Meeting, January 31-February 3, 2009, Atlanta, Georgia 46751, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
- Carlos Vargas-Silva, 2009.
"Are Remittances Manna From Heaven? A Look at the Business Cycle Properties of Remittances,"
0905, Sam Houston State University, Department of Economics and International Business.
- Vargas-Silva, Carlos, 2008. "Are remittances manna from heaven? A look at the business cycle properties of remittances," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 290-303, December.
- Jeffrey A. Edwards & Jennis J. Biser, 2011. "The interactive effect of remittances and civil liberties on investment and consumption," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(1), pages 20-33, April.
- Hulya Ulku, 2010. "Remitting Behaviour of Turkish Migrants: Evidence from Household Data in Germany," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 11510, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
- Miguel Ramirez, 2012. "Do Financial and Institutional Variables Enhance the Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean? A Panel Cointegration Analysis," Working Papers 1202, Trinity College, Department of Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.