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Does it matter where patent citations come from? Inventor versus examiner citations in European patents

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Author Info

  • Criscuolo, P.

    (Tanaka Business School, Imperial College, London)

  • Verspagen, B.

    (ECIS, Eindhoven University of Technology)

Abstract

This paper investigates whether the distinction between patent citations added by the inventor or the examiner is relevant for the issue of geographical concentration of knowledge flows (as embodied in citations). The distinction between inventor and examiner citations enables us to work with a more refined citation indicator of knowledge flows. We use information in the search reports of patent examiners at the European Patent Office to construct our dataset of regional patenting in Europe, and apply various econometric models to investigate our research question. The findings point to a significant localization effect of inventor citations, after controlling for various other factors, and hence suggest that knowledge flows are indeed geographically concentrated. This holds true also for a sub-sample of patents owned by 169 large multinational enterprises (MNEs). The results for the sample of MNEs suggest that multinational firms seek out specific regional knowledge specializations (and hence at least partly reinforce geographical concentration), but are also able to transfer knowledge "easier" over larger distances.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) in its series Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) working paper series with number 05.06.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:tuecis:0506

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Web page: http://ecis.ieis.tue.nl/

Related research

Keywords: patent; European; citations;

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References

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  1. Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco, 2001. "Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 975-1005, December.
  2. Adam Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 1999. "International Knowledge Flows: Evidence From Patent Citations," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1-2), pages 105-136.
  3. Maurseth, Per Botolf & Verspagen, Bart, 2002. " Knowledge Spillovers in Europe: A Patent Citations Analysis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 104(4), pages 531-45, December.
  4. Kevin Morgan, 2004. "The exaggerated death of geography: learning, proximity and territorial innovation systems," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 3-21, January.
  5. Laura Bottazzi & Giovanni Peri, . "Innovation and Spillovers in Regions: Evidence from European Patent Data," Working Papers 215, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  6. Adam B. Jaffe & Michael S. Fogarty & Bruce A. Banks, 1997. "Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovation," NBER Working Papers 6044, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Hausman, J.A. & Newey, W.K., 1992. "Nonparametric Estimation of Exact Consumers Surplus and Deadweight Loss," Working papers 93-2, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  8. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Michael S. Fogarty, 2000. "The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees," NBER Working Papers 7631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Jaffe, A.B. & Trajtenberg, M., 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," Papers 14-92, Tel Aviv.
  10. Verspagen, B. & Schoenmakers, W., 2002. "The Spatial Dimension of Patenting by Multinational Firms in Europe," Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) working paper series 02.11, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS).
  11. Akers, Noël J., 2000. "The referencing of prior art documents in European patents and applications," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 309-315, December.
  12. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 1996. "Flows of Knowledge from Universities and Federal Labs: Modeling the Flowof Patent Citations Over Time and Across Institutional and Geographic Boundari," NBER Working Papers 5712, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-38, May.
  14. Peter Thompson & Melanie Fox-Kean, 2005. "Patent Citations and the Geography of Knowledge Spillovers: A Reassessment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 450-460, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Christ, Julian P., 2010. "The geography and co-location of European technology-specific co-inventorship networks," FZID Discussion Papers 14-2010, University of Hohenheim, Center for Research on Innovation and Services (FZID).
  2. Rajneesh Narula & Grazia D. Santangelo, 2007. "Location and R&D alliances in the European ICT industry," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2007-43, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  3. Narula, Rajneesh & Michel, Julie, 2009. "Reverse knowledge transfer and its implications for European policy," MERIT Working Papers 035, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  4. Sadowski, B.M. & Straathof, B., 2005. "VoIP under the EU Regulatory Framework: Preventing Foreclosure?," Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) working paper series 05.16, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS).
  5. Narula, Rajneesh, 2013. "Exploring the paradox of competence-creating subsidiaries: balancing bandwidth and dispersion in MNEs," MERIT Working Papers 046, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  6. Leten, Bart & Kelchtermans, Stijn & Belderbos, Ren, 2010. "Internal Basic Research, External Basic Research and the Technological Performance of Pharmaceutical Firms," Working Papers 2010/12, Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economie en Management.
  7. Narula, Rajneesh & Santangelo, Grazia D., 2011. "New insights on the role of location advantages in international innovation," MERIT Working Papers 045, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  8. Gustavo Crespi & Chiara Criscuolo & Jonathan E. Haskel & Matthew Slaughter, 2008. "Productivity Growth, Knowledge Flows, and Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 13959, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Schettino, Francesco & Sterlacchini, Alessandro & Venturini, Francesco, 2008. "Inventive Productivity and Patent Quality: Evidence from Italian Inventors," MPRA Paper 7765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2009. "Knowledge flows across European regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 669-690, September.
  11. Narula, Rajneesh, 2013. "Using a 'Systems' Perspective to Explain the Limits of 'New' Multinational Enterprises: the role of 'members-only' location advantages," MERIT Working Papers 033, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  12. Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver, 2011. "Social Networks across Spatial Agglomerations: the Paradox of High-Tech Clusters. A Critical Revision of Clusters," ERSA conference papers ersa11p779, European Regional Science Association.

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