Slicing Up Global Value Chains
AbstractStudies of the effects of production fragmentation on factor income distributions typically analyze changes at the country, region, industry or firm level. In this paper we take the perspective of a product, and focus on the discrete activities in distinct locations, which altogether form a production network starting at the conception of the product and ending at its delivery. We take a macro-perspective and analyze factor content patterns for a wide set of manufacturing product groups, and study their development over time. Using a decomposition technique originally introduced by Leontief (1936), we ?slice up the global value chains? and trace the value added by all labor and capital that is directly and indirectly used for the production of final manufacturing goods. We find that the process of international fragmentation as measured by the foreign value-added content of production has rapidly increased since 1995 in most global value chains, but is still far from ?completed?. We then turn to an analysis of the value distribution across production factors, and find a strong shift towards value being added by capital and high-skilled labor, and away from less-skilled labor. We also find a major shift in the production location, as the overall value added in advanced countries did not increase over the period 1995-2008 and all growth was realized in other emerging countries. Finally, we present evidence on the importance of manufactures GVCs for employment. We show how advanced nations increasingly specialize in activities carried out by high-skilled workers. Taken together the results suggest that the increasing possibilities for international production fragmentation had pervasive consequences for the factor income distribution both across and within countries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen in its series GGDC Research Memorandum with number GD-135.
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- L16 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure
- L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
- M11 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - Production Management
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-06-16 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Antràs, Pol & Chor, Davin & Fally, Thibault & Hillberry, Russell, 2012.
"Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
8839, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Pol Antras & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 412-16, May.
- Pol Antràs & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," NBER Working Papers 17819, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Corrado, Carol & Haskel, Jonathan & Iommi, Massimiliano & Jona-Lasinio, Cecilia, 2012. "Intangible Capital and Growth in Advanced Economies: Measurement and Comparative Results," CEPR Discussion Papers 9061, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Timmer, Marcel & Stehrer, Robert & Los, Bart & Vries, Gaaitzen J. de, 2012.
"Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs. An analysis of European competitiveness,"
GGDC Research Memorandum
GD-130, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
- Marcel P. Timmer & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Gaaitzen J. Vries, 2013. "Fragmentation, incomes and jobs: an analysis of European competitiveness," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 28(76), pages 613-661, October.
- Timmer, Marcel P. & Los, Bart & Stehrer, Robert & de Vries, Gaaitzen, 2013. "Fragmentation, incomes and jobs: an analysis of European competitiveness," Working Paper Series 1615, European Central Bank.
- Bernard Hoekman, 2013. "Supply Chains and International Cooperation: Thinking Outside the Box," RSCAS Working Papers PP2013/11, European University Institute.
- repec:rsc:rsceui:2013/11 is not listed on IDEAS
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joke Bulthuis).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.