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The pricing of initial public offerings: A simple model

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  • Berglund, T.

    (Tilburg University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration)

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    Abstract

    This paper presents a simple model that explains a number of empirical observations on initial public offerings. The model assumes that the firm which intends to go public is best informed about the future prospects of the firm. The apparent incentive for the firm to overprice the offering creates a market for an intermediary that can certify the estimated value of the firm. In this paper the decision problem of establishing a proper offer price is condensed into a simple loss-function for the intermediary. The paper shows that under fairly general conditions underpricing will arise. The expected underpricing will be a function of a few simple parameters.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Tilburg University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration in its series Research Memorandum with number 673.

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    Date of creation: 1994
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    Handle: RePEc:dgr:kubrem:1994673

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    Web page: http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/nl/over-tilburg-university/schools/economics-and-management/

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    1. Schultz, Paul H. & Zaman, Mir A., 1994. "Aftermarket support and underpricing of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 199-219, April.
    2. Ibbotson, Roger G., 1975. "Price performance of common stock new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 235-272, September.
    3. Merton, Robert C, 1987. " A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
    4. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1995. "Initial public offerings: International insights," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 139-140, May.
    5. Loderer, Claudio & Cooney, John W & van Drunen, Leonard D, 1991. " The Price Elasticity of Demand for Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 621-51, June.
    6. Randolph P. Beatty & Jay R. Ritter, . "Investment Banking, Reputation and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 02-85, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    7. Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1993. "Differences of Opinion Make a Horse Race," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(3), pages 473-506.
    8. Tinic, Seha M, 1988. " Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(4), pages 789-822, September.
    9. Baron, David P & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1980. " The Investment Banking Contract for New Issues under Asymmetric Information: Delegation and the Incentive Problem," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(5), pages 1115-38, December.
    10. Ritter, Jay R., 1987. "The costs of going public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 269-281, December.
    11. Chemmanur, Thomas J, 1993. " The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 285-304, March.
    12. Baron, David P, 1982. " A Model of the Demand for Investment Banking Advising and Distribution Services for New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(4), pages 955-76, September.
    13. James, Christopher, 1992. " Relationship-Specific Assets and the Pricing of Underwriter Services," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(5), pages 1865-85, December.
    14. Mark Grinblatt & Chuan Yang Hwang, . "Signalling and the Pricing of Unseasoned New Issues," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 1-89, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    15. Muscarella, Chris J. & Vetsuypens, Michael R., 1989. "A simple test of Baron's model of IPO underpricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 125-135, September.
    16. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
    17. Hayne E. Leland and David H. Pyle., 1976. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 41, University of California at Berkeley.
    18. Ruud, Judith S., 1993. "Underwriter price support and the IPO underpricing puzzle," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 135-151, October.
    19. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Kumar, A. Arun & Seguin, Paul J., 1993. "Price stabilization in the market for new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 177-197, October.
    20. Welch, Ivo, 1992. " Sequential Sales, Learning, and Cascades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 695-732, June.
    21. Welch, Ivo, 1989. " Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 421-49, June.
    22. Allen, Franklin & Faulhaber, Gerald R., 1989. "Signalling by underpricing in the IPO market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 303-323, August.
    23. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan & Weinstein, Mark & Welch, Ivo, 1993. "An empirical investigation of IPO returns and subsequent equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 153-175, October.
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